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BADGE.TEAM documentation

MCH2022 is over, but The Badge lives on!

To everyone who worked on the project, be it in the past months or 1,5 years ago when we were still aiming for MCH2021: you rock! We have received so many compliments on the design, the soft-/firmware, the day 1 readiness, the website & docs, the specs and the overall end result: whatever you did to contribute, you can be proud to be or to have been part of this.

To our sponsors and the people who arranged the sponsorships: we couldn’t have done it without you. To everyone who made apps or mods during camp: thank you for giving The Badge its purpose. We hope to see even more in the future. To everyone here: thank you for being here, sharing our hype, giving your input and for making cool things with the badge.

To those who are missing something in their badge kit: we’ll work something out. We have some batteries and lots of tangle strip (velcro) left. Update Soon™ To those who want an extra badge: they will probably be sold in the ticket shop, we’ll share an update once we know more.

Please keep in touch, don’t put The Badge in a drawer, keep learning and hacking! We’ll be around for questions, fixes, improvements.

Now back to our regular programming.

In all likelihood you came here because you want to learn how to get the most out of your MCH2022 Badge…

Please proceed to the MCH2022 section, where we have gathered all necessary information for you.

If you are having difficulties getting The Badge badge up and running, first reread the Getting Started instructions then check our Troubleshooting Hints.

Badge Stuff

In case you’re here for another badge …

Uups, apologies. Don’t forget that this site caters to quite a number of events that have badges built on the same technology, in case you received such a badge and are looking for pointers on how to use it, please proceed to choose your badge.

All resource on this site are works-in-progress. Please let us know if you find any errors or run into corner that could be explained more clearly by opening an issue or pull request in the documentation website repo. For example, this page should revert to being a generic badge documentation site after MCH2022. Thanks!

mascot

1 - Badges

BADGE.TEAM badges

ESP32 based

Badge
MCH2022
CampZone 2020
Disobey 2020
CampZone 2019
HackerHotel 2019
Disobey 2019
SHA2017

Other badges

Badge
ETH0
HackerHotel 2020

Collaborations

These badges were made in collaboration with BADGE.TEAM

Other ESP32 based badges

These badges were not developed by us, but we’ve added support for them to our ESP32 platform firmware. Our efforts for these badges are more of an “after market upgrade” so to say…

The CCC camp 2019 “CARD10” badge

The CARD10 uses the hatchery as it’s app repository. For all other details about this project (the hardware, firmware and API) please have a look at the CARD10 project over at the CCC website.

(An incomplete) list of badges

An incomplete but slowly growing list of event badges and their derrivatives. Help us extend this list by pointing us towards badges that are missing.

Name Event Year Architecture ESP32 platform support Hatchery support Supported by BADGE.TEAM
TR11 Troopers 2011 No No No
TiLDA MK1 EMF 2012 No No No
TR12 Troopers 2012 No No No
SiNE EMW/EMF 2013 No No No
TR13 Troopers 2013 No No No
TiLDA MKe EMF 2014 No No No
TR14 Troopers 2014 No No No
TR15 Troopers 2015 No No No
Vuurvliegje Hark24 2015 None No No No
H2HC 2015 H2HC 2015 Arduino Leonardo No No No
TiLDA Mkπ EMF 2016 STM32L486VGT6 No No No
H2HC 2016 H2HC 2016 ESP8266 (NodeMCU) No No No
SHA2017 SHA2017 2017 ESP32 (Wroom) Yes Yes Yes
TR17 Troopers 2017 ATMEGA? No No No
H2HC 2017 H2HC 2017 ATTINY85 No No No
Disobey 2018 Disobey.fi 2018 STM32F0 No No No
TiLDA Mkδ EMF 2018 MSP432E4 No No No
TR18 Troopers 2018 No No No
Fri3d camp 2018 Fri3d camp 2018 ESP32 (Wroom) Yes (unreleased) Unofficially Unofficially
Open Hardware Summit (OHS) 2018 badge Open Hardware Summit 2018 ESP32 (Wroom) Partially Unofficially Unofficially
H2HC 2018 H2HC 2018 ESP32 (Wroom) No No No
Disobey 2019 Disobey.fi 2019 ESP32 (Wroom) Yes (unreleased) Yes Yes
Hackerhotel 2019 HackerHotel 2019 ESP32 (Wrover) Yes (unreleased) Yes Yes
I-PANE CampZone 2019 ESP32 (Wroom) Yes Yes Yes
TR19 Troopers 2019 ESP32 (Wrover) Yes (unreleased) Unofficially Unofficially
CARD10 CCC Camp 2019 MAX32666 No Yes Hatchery only
Hello CCC Camp (unofficial) 2019 LPC1115 No No No
DIY badge ETH0 Autumn 2019 None No No Yes
Disobey 2020 Disobey.fi 2020 ESP32 (Wrover) Yes Yes Yes
Hackerhotel 2020 HackerHotel 2020 ??? No No Yes

1.1 - MCH2022 badge

The MCH2022 badge is our most advanced badge yet. Shaped like a game console this badge is a powerhouse filled with cool technology.

Once assembled, you can use the badge to display your name, write Python code and maybe play a game or find an Easter Egg, but don’t forget: the real fun starts when you hack it to make it your own!

MCH2022 badge

Getting Started

We’ve assembled some resources to quickly get started.

Getting Help (and helping …)

Reread the instructions if something isn’t working. Then go to our Troubleshooting Guide

Check out these resources if you run into trouble.

The Hardware

The badge contains an Espressif ESP32 Wrover-e WiFi module with 16MB of flash storage and 8MB of PSRAM, an Raspberry Pi RP2040 microcontroller chip for advanced USB communication and board management and a Lattice ICE40UP5K FPGA for hardware accelerated graphics.

It also contains a bunch of stuff (TODO elaborate “stuff”).

The hardware is described in more detail in the hardware section.

The Software

The ESP32 loads an application chooser menu when you first power it on. Once loaded, you can launch a number of preinstalled applications:

  • the Name-Tag app
  • a Micropython scripting environment
  • a sensor playground for the Bosch sensors
  • The Hatchery where you can load more apps!

and the app contains a link to the Hatchery an app store you can use to load more apps. And more importantly, where you can publish app you write yourself.

The software is still in active development, more information will be published here soon.

1.1.1 - MCH2022 Badge Hardware

Block diagram

The badge contains a huge amount of awesome chips, so many that a block diagram is necessary to explain how everything is interconnected.

Block diagram

The ESP32 is at the center of the operation. It has access to almost all the peripherals on the badge and using its WiFi connectivity it can load new firmware and applications from the internet.

The RP2040 microcontroller provides USB connectivity consisting of two serial ports (for the ESP32 and the FPGA), WebUSB for managing the badge using your browser and HID for acting like a keyboard, mouse or joystick. It also drives the SK6812-EC15 addressable LEDs, giving the badge a lot of bling and eyecandy. To top it off a lot of the I/O pins of the RP2040 have been broken out, both as the IO pins of the SAO connector and as testpads next to the prototyping areas on the back of the badge.

The ICE40UP5K FPGA is programmed over an SPI connection by the ESP32. Using this connection the FPGA can also communicate with the application running on the ESP32. Our goal is to enable people to learn about HDL programming so new bitstreams can easily be loaded into the FPGA by user applications, to provide any function you want ranging from a simple LED blinker to a RISC-V SoC. To accomodate more advanced designs the FPGA is connected to the LCD display via a parallel bus, enabling it to update the display at high refresh rates, as well as 8MB of PSRAM via a Quad-SPI bus. 8 of the I/O pins of the FPGA have been broken out as an industry standard PMOD header, allowing users to connect standard expansion modules or their own creations.

Resources

Datasheets and Resources

  • ESP32 datasheet the datasheet for the main processor
  • ESP32 technical reference technical reference for the main processor. This contains information about the features of the chip, so technically, it belongs in the firmware section, but … whatever.
  • WROVER datasheet datasheet of the module. The processor is packed together with peripherals necessary for operations in a module (WROVER) nuder a metallic can.
  • RP2040 documentation site and datasheet
  • Lattice ICE40UP5K - iCE40UltraPlus documentation site and datasheet
  • BME680 4 in 1 gas sensor. (temperature, humidity, air pressure and volatile organic compounds (VOC)
  • BNO055 accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer sensor
  • Display also have a look here
  • SK6812-EC15 addressable RGB - LEDs (aka Neopixel)
  • MS4344 Audio DAC

1.1.1.1 - MCH2022 badge pinouts

Connectors

SAO (Shitty AddOn)

Addon connector following the SHITTY ADD-ON V1.69BIS standard.

Pin Description Direction Connection
1 VCC Power output 3.3v supply voltage output
2 GND Power output Ground reference
3 SDA Data IO I2C bus data
4 SCL Data output I2C bus clock
5 GPIO1 Data IO User configurable IO, connected to RP2040 GPIO18
6 GPIO2 Data IO User configurable IO, connected to RP2040 GPIO19

PMOD (peripheral module interface)

PMOD

The PMOD connector is wired up to the iCE40 FPGA. Note that while the connector is physically located on the backside of the badge, it has been wired up such that the PMOD’s top side must be pointed in the same direction as the badge’s top.

PMOD pin ICE40 pin Note
1 47 IOB_2a (paired with PMOD pin 7 IOB_3b_G6)
2 48 IOB_4a (paired with PMOD pin 8 IOB_5b)
3 4 IOB_8a (paired with PMOD pin 9 IOB_9b)
4 2 IOB_6a
7 44 IOB_3b_G6 (paired with PMOD pin 1 IOB_2a)
8 45 IOB_5b (paired with PMOD pin 2 IOB_4a)
9 3 IOB_9b (paired with PMOD pin 3 IOB_8a)
10 46 IOB_0a

Chips

ESP32

ESP32 GPIO Direction Function Note
0 Both I2S master clock output / UART download select input Drives I2S DAC / driven by RP2040 through resistor
1 Output UART TX Connected to RP2040
2 Both SD card data 0 SD card slot
3 Input UART RX Connected to RP2040
4 Output I2S bit clock
5 Output LED data Connected to the SK6805 LEDs in the kite
12 Output I2S LR channel select
13 Output I2S data
14 Output SD clock SD card slot
15 Output SD command SD card slot
18 Output SPI clock Connected to LCD and FPGA
19 Output SD card and kite LED power control Set high to enable power to LEDs and SD card
21 Output I2C clock Connected to RP2040, BNO055, BME680, Qwiic connector and SAO addon connector
22 Both I2C data Connected to RP2040, BNO055, BME680, Qwiic connector and SAO addon connector
23 Output SPI MOSI Data from ESP32 to LCD / FPGA
25 Both LCD reset Set to output low to reset LCD, leave floating normally
26 Output LCD mode Low: LCD in SPI mode, high: LCD in parallel mode
27 Output SPI chip select for ICE40 Low: select ICE40, high: deselect ICE40
32 Both SPI chip select for LCD Low: select LCD, high: deselect LCD. Note: output in LCD SPI mode, input in LCD parallel mode
33 Both LCD DC (data or command) selection Note: output in LCD SPI mode, input in LCD parallel mode
34 Input Interrupt from RP2040
35 Input SPI MISO Connected to ICE40
36 (SENSOR_VP) Input Interrupt from position sensor (BNO055)
39 (SENSOR_VN) Input Interrupt from ICE40 FPGA

RP2040

RP2040 GPIO Direction Pull Function Description
0 Output UART0 TX ESP32 UART
1 Input UART0 RX ESP32 UART
2 Both I2C1 SDA I2C bus data (RP2040 is in slave mode)
3 Input I2C1 SCL I2C bus clock
4 Input Up GPIO Button: MENU
5 Input Up GPIO Button: HOME
6 Input Up GPIO Button: ACCEPT
7 Input Up GPIO Button: Joystick A
8 Input Up GPIO Button: Joystick B
9 Input Up GPIO Button: Joystick C
10 Input Up GPIO Button: Joystick D
11 Input Up GPIO Button: Joystick E
12 Both GPIO ESP32 bootloader mode¹
13 Output GPIO ESP32 enable
14 Both GPIO ESP32 interrupt¹
15 Output PWM LCD backlight brightness
16 Both GPIO Available next to prototyping area
17 Both GPIO Available next to prototyping area
18 Both GPIO SAO GPIO1
19 Both GPIO SAO GPIO2
20 Input GPIO FPGA done
21 Output GPIO FPGA reset
22 Input Up GPIO Button: START
23 Input GPIO LiPo charger state
24 Output UART1 TX FPGA UART
25 Input UART1 RX FPGA UART
26 Input Up GPIO Button: BACK
27 Output GPIO Infrared LED
28 Input ADC Voltage measurement: USB input
29 Input ADC Voltage measurement: Battery

¹: Set to input normally and force low to activate

ICE40 FPGA

ICE40 pin ICE40 GPIO Direction Description Notes
2 IOB_6a Both PMOD pin 4
3 IOB_8a Both PMOD pin 3
4 IOB_9b Both PMOD pin 9
6 IOB_13b Input UART RX
9 IOB_16a Output UART TX
10 IOB_18a Output Interrupt Active-low
11 IOB_20a Output LCD register select
12 IOB_22b Both RAM SPI D2
13 IOB_24a Both RAM SPI D1
14 IOB_32a_SPI_SO Output SPI MISO
15 IOB_34b_SPI_SCK Input SPI SCK
16 IOB_35b_SPI_SS Input SPI SS
17 IOB_33b_SPI_SI Input SPI MOSI
18 IOB_31b Output RAM SPI CS
19 IOB_29b Output RAM SPI SCK
20 IOB_25b_G3 Both RAM SPI D3
21 IOB_23b Both RAM SPI D0
23 IOT_37a Output LCD write
25 IOT_36b Input LCD frame sync
26 IOT_39a Output LCD data 0
27 IOT_38a Output LCD data 1
28 IOT_41a Output LCD CS
31 IOT_42b Output LCD data 2
32 IOT_43a Output LCD data 3
34 IOT_44b Output LCD data 4
35 IOT_46b_G0 Input 12MHz clock
36 IOT_48b Output LCD reset Active-low, drive open-drain
37 IOT_45a_G1 Output LCD data 5
38 IOT_50b Output LCD data 6
39 RGB0 Output LED
40 RGB1 Output LED
41 RGB2 Output LED
42 IOT_51a Output LCD data 7
43 IOT_49a Input LCD mode Should be driven by ESP and monitored by FPGA
44 IOB_3b_G6 Both PMOD pin 7
45 IOB_5b Both PMOD pin 8
46 IOB_0a Both PMOD pin 10
47 IOB_2a Both PMOD pin 1
48 IOB_4a Both PMOD pin 2

1.1.1.2 - MCH2022 Badge Hardware Hacking

The badge is made for hacking, and the hardware is no exception. There are several intended ways to extend the badge, next to unlimited unintented ones.

If you have access to a 3D printer, an easy and worthwile hardware mod is to print a knob for the joystick, such as this one or a case.

Shitty Add-on

The badge has a SAO header, which can provide power, I2C, and 2 GPIOs to small accessories that can be plugged in.

Qwiic

At the back of the badge there is a Qwiic connector hooked up to the ESP32 that is compatible with a large family of modules from Sparkfun, Adafruit and others.

PMOD

On the side of the badge there is a PMOD connector hooked up to the FPGA that is compatible with a large family of modules from Digilent and others.

May Contain Hardware Area

On the back of the badge there is a prototyping area with a grid of pads, as well as pads the expose I2C, power, and GPIOs.

Across the rest of the PCB are labeled pads that expose things like the LED serial data, audio signal, IR signal, various debug pads, and more.

1.1.2 - Getting Help (and helping)

You’re on the main documentation site for The Badge.

We hope that we’ll be able to centralize all documentation efforts here, but who knows what happens at camps.

We would be very happy to accept pull request (TODO link to how to make a good PR) if you find the documentation lacking and feel you are able to make improvements. The documentation project lives in this github repository

If you feel your Badge is broken, go HERE first!

Random Resources for Getting Help

But I want to chat with somebody …

And if you’re reading this at MCH2022, just come by our tent

Overview of the main github Repos you can contribute to …

You can find the sources and hardware files for all Badge artefacts files under the Badge.team organization:

Non-Specific Resources

(TODO)

  • ESP32.com
  • reddit/r/esp32
  • rp2040 (todo)
  • micropython
  • lattice
  • yosys fpga getting started general

1.1.2.1 - Troubleshooting & FAQ

This page is intended to collect answers to questions that pop up frequently and solutions to common problems…

MicroPython crashes every time I connect to it …

Apparently I’m disturbing the Guru’s Meditation

In case you are trying some Python samples and the firmware crashes … like this:

Guru Meditation Error: Core  0 panic'ed (Interrupt wdt timeout on CPU0).

Core  0 register dump:
PC      : 0x40084b56  PS      : 0x00050035  A0      : 0x400d7fde  A1      : 0x3ffbe990
A2      : 0x00040040  A3      : 0x3ffb27e0  A4      : 0xc0000000  A5      : 0x3ffbe970
A6      : 0x3ff40000  A7      : 0x3ffbf074  A8      : 0x800d7fde  A9      : 0x40090908
A10     : 0x00000000  A11     : 0xa6000000  A12     : 0x00000000  A13     : 0x00000473
A14     : 0x3f403a98  A15     : 0xffffffff  SAR     : 0x0000001f  EXCCAUSE: 0x00000005
EXCVADDR: 0x00000000  LBEG    : 0x4000c2e0  LEND    : 0x4000c2f6  LCOUNT  : 0xffffffff
Core  0 was running in ISR context:
EPC1    : 0x400d3f03  EPC2    : 0x400d7fde  EPC3    : 0x00000000  EPC4    : 0x00000000


Backtrace:0x40084b53:0x3ffbe9900x400d7fdb:0x3ffb27e0 0x401d505f:0x3ffb2800

We are working on it:

  • make sure you’ve updated your BadgePython to the newest version. Use the AppUpdate menu item…
  • try deleting Python from the Apps menu and reinstalling it from The Hatchery (Hatchery->ESP32->Utilities)

If none of this helps, here’s an easy work around … Connect to the serial console before you start Python. While you’re still in the launcher, connect, you will see some of the logging of the launcher application, when you start Python, you will see the boot messages. If the serial console is already attached when Python starts, it doesn’t crash. WTF!? ¯\_ (ツ)_/¯

I keep getting 419 errors in the Hatchery!

If you can’t log in to the Hatchery (or create an account) or whatever because you are getting 419 Expired errors, you need to either clear all cookies for the Hatchery, use incognito mode to connect or try a different browser. Please also report your experience, inlcuding time of occurance in the issue concerning this behavior to help figure this out.

My SD-Card is not being recognized

Try formatting the card as FAT32. Unfortunately exFAT is currently not supported.

The wifi doesn’t work!

Your battery is probably too close to the ESP32 “tin can”. Try moving it over :) The black strip on top of the can is the wifi antenna, you need to make sure that bit is not covered by anything.

Move battery in this direction

The kite in the front is flashing RED!? Am I in danger!?

You’re probably fine. But be sure to drink plenty of water. But you will need to:

  • Download the the RP2040 coprocessor firmware U2F
  • Turn the Badge off ( with the switch labeled ON-OFF)
  • Hold the SELECT button while turning the switch back to ON
  • Make sure a USB cable is connected to your computer
  • The Badge will mount as a mass storage device (MSD, a.k.a USB thumbdrive)
  • Drag-n-drop (or whatever it is you Linux-from-Scratch folks do …) the U2F firmware onto the drive

This sounds way more complicated than it is, you’ll figure it out. In case you don’t that means we msessed up something else as well, please bring your Badge to the Badge tent so we can have a look to see what went wrong.

The badge doesn’t connect to the computer

If you have followed the instructions concerning udev rules, you may have a bad USB cable. Or a charging only cable. Did you make sure to connect one end of the cable into the computer and the other into The Badge? Try running lsusb, it should contain an entry like the one below:

$ lsusb
...
Bus 002 Device 025: ID 16d0:0f9a MCS MCH2022 badge
...

If instead, you see a line like this:

Bus 002 Device 027: ID 2e8a:0003 Raspberry Pi RP2 Boot

You may be having some issues with the Bootloader, have a look here for some hints.

Try running lsusb without a badge and see if you get different messages when a Badge is connected.

If this is not the case, try out a friend’s cable.

Button presses are glitching/bouncing‽

Your badge is probably not broken. Try updating the OS first. Choose “OS Update” in the main menu.

OMGWTFBBQ “FAIL”!?

In case you see this when first booting your Badge:

OMG, Fail!?

Don’t worry, that just means one of the elves in Santa’s workshop forgot to confirm that the self-test passed. Plug it into USB, and press A.

1.1.3 - Getting started

Congratulations, you’re the proud owner of a shiny new MCH badge! It’s a fully-functional computer, and while you (can do stuff with it) out of the box, the real fun starts when you start hacking it. The badge has two processors, an FPGA and a ton of sensors and toys to play with all in the palm of your hand! And we’ve done what we could to make using it as friendly and intuitive as possible. We had a lot of fun making it, and we hope you’ll have a lot of fun using it.

No fluff! I wanna get started!

Hook up the battery to the badge, the connector only allows it to be connected the right way around. Set the labeled on/off switch to ON. Things should quickly start up, display works and it makes a sound.

If this is the case everything works and you’re good to go. Attach the battery to the badge using the included velcro, slap on the lanyard (and possibly insert an SD-Card) and Start Hacking!

Don’t forget to update the OS and preinstalled apps. And have a look at some general tips for Using the Badge.

The rest of this page contains more detailed instructions in case you run into problems.

In the pack

Picture of contents of pack

If you are reading this at MCH, you received the unassembled badge in a bag when you entered the camp. Inside the bag are the following items:

(These will obviously change subject to what is in the pack)

  • The badge itself
  • A lithium-polymer battery for the badge
  • A self-adhesive Velcro patch for attaching the battery
  • A printed badge lanyard
  • A leaflet containing basic information about the badge

Fitting the battery

Battery

The battery is a silver pouch with a short cable terminated in a trailing socket connector. This mates with a PCB mounted plug which you’ll find on the component side of the badge. Place your badge screen side down with the USB-C connector facing towards you, and you’ll find the on-board battery connector at the bottom right next to a field of gold squares (the prototyping area -> link to hardware).

Connector

The trailing plug on the battery has a small lug on one side that interfaces with a notch in the on-board socket. With the lug facing upwards, carefully slot the two connectors together.

Now turn the badge on. The switch is labeled ON OFF and located just below the battery connector. It will boot up, the display will start displaying things and the speaker will make some noise.

The battery should now be attached to the badge via the connector. We’ve provided velcro so you can affix it to the badge more firmly. One side of the battery tends to buldge, so try out which side lies most snugly against the badge. Find a good spot on the back of the battery and the reverse of the badge to attach the velcro.

Inserting an SD-Card

The SD-Card holder is a bit fiddly. We’ve assembled an illustrated guide to inserting an SD-Card.

Now what?

You should now have a working badge. We strongly suggest that you hook it up to a live USB power source to fully charge the battery. You’ll need a cable with a USB-C at the Badge end.

While the battery is charging, it’s time to explore the badge a little. When you turn it on it will start with a splash screen and details of all the sponsors who have made the event and the badge possible. You’ll then see the badge menu screen, so now’s a good time to move along to the next step in this introduction: using the MCH 2022 badge.

Also, as with all security critical devices, make sure you update the Badge software and any of the apps you installed. There’s a menu item for that, which will probably save you a lot of grief from bugs we’ve already fixed!

1.1.3.1 - Inserting an SD Card

I inserted the card correctly, but it doesn’t work.

Format the card as FAT32 not exFAT, please. And if you are using a humongous 12TB Super SD Card, maybe try a cheap, small one from the grocery store :)

Oh Noes! I broke off the little metal thingie of the SD Card holder!

Oh well, better luck next time! Don’t feel bad, you’re not alone.

You can probably stick it back into the little grey plastic thingie.

I almost broke off the little metal thingie of the SD Card holder, WTF!?

Lucky you! You’ve come to the right place.

The trick is to:

  • insert a fingernail into the SD-Cardholder manipulation slot and pull DOWN! (DOWN is in the direction of the arrow in the picture.)

  • Somehow I never realized the metal thingie actually has “OPEN->” embossed in it until I uploaded the picture for the documenation. Don’t I feel stupid …

pull DOWN

  • fiddle around with your SD-Card to somehow get the alignment slot of the grey plastic thingie to align with the alignment notch in the card.

align notch

  • find a small-fingered nerd to hold the SD-Card in place while you flip the metal fastener over the card and insert a fingernail into the SD-Cardholder manipulation slot and push UP! (UP is the direction of the arrow in the picture)

push up

1.1.3.2 - Installing Apps from "The Hatchery"

WTF is a Hatchery!?

The Hatchery is an app store for The Badge!

You can also sort through the apps other people have published there. If you do so, please be aware that we don’t check for malware and will NEVER ask for your credit card number or home banking password (just kidding, off course we will.)

BTW, it’s called Hatchery because it (used to) contain “eggs” because previously the Hatchery was limited to Micropython apps and those are called eggs. And eggs hatch if you don’t eat them. Nowadays the Hatchery also supports native ESP Apps and FPGA bitstreams.

You can also use the Hatchery to publish your own apps and share them with friends. And unlike other App Stores, you don’t need a Dunn & Bradstreet Number, $1000 and don’t have to worry about your app being rejected because it contains malware.

A Word of Warning

Our crack team of Useability Experts are working around the clock to make the Hatchery even more intuitive and easy! So some of the information here, especially the screenshots may be out of date by the time you read this. Also, the documentation team is exceptionally lazy. Did we mention you can help update the documentation!? Go to the website project to create a Pull Request!

Better yet, check out the repo for The Hatchery itself and make improvements.

In case you are experiencing issues receiving 419 errors, clear cookies and try again.

Find an App

This will probably be the challenging part. We recommend you do this on a big computer, like a laptop. Something with a keyboard.

Go to mch20222.badge.team and sift through our fine offering of Hello World apps and super slow bitcoin miner malware.

Pick an App

If you go to the apps details page, you can download the app. But you don’t need to. Just remember the Category.

Now, go to the Hatchery app on the Badge.

Hatchery … the app

Next you’ll be asked whether you want to install an ESP32 app, a Python egg or and FPGA bitstream. At the moment you kindof need to guess, here’s a heuristic:

If the details page contains:

  • a file named main.bin it’s ESP32
  • a bunch of Python files, it may be Python
  • a file named bitstream.bin it’s an FPGA bitstream

In the next step, go to the Category remembered. Let’s pick “Safe Credit Card Detail Storage” (ESP->Utility). That sounds totally legit! Select it with the A button and you will see app details. As you can see, the app is, in fact, totally legit.

Totally legit

Now just press A to install. It will download for a while. Once it’s done, go to the “Apps” menu and your brand new app should be available to launch! Or … uninstall.

App Launcher

1.1.3.3 - Using Your Badge

Your MCH badge comes with installed software which allows you to select and run applications, install new applications from the online Hatchery, and configure Badge functions such as the Wi-Fi SSID and password (don’t worry, it can connect to camp Wifi out of the box).

This page is a high-level introduction to the installed software. If you came here looking for details on how to write software for the badge, then take a look at our software development guide.

Start at the menu screen

When you first turn on your badge, you’ll see a series of logos of the MCH2022 sponsors (Thanks again!) before finally a chime plays on the speaker and you find yourself at the main menu screen. It’s a graphical launcher with a series of icons for the different Badge functions. You can select a function with the joystick before launching it with the A button or by clicking the joystick.

When you are in an app the convention is that the A button is usually an action, the B button should take you one step back, and the Home button at the bottom left of the screen should take you out of the app and back to the menu.

As shipped, the badge has seven options on the main menu:

  • Name Tag. This is the usual name tag app for an event Badge.
  • Apps. This takes you to the user-installed apps on The Badge, including a Python launcher for backwards compatibility with previous badge.team badges going back to the SHA 2017 badge.
  • Hatchery. This is the app store for The Badge. Explore it to find new apps written by other MCH attendees.
  • Tools. Here you can find a file browser, as well as infra-red remote control apps for some of the camp lighting.
  • Settings. This takes you to a selection of badge configuration options. The badge ships pre-configured for the MCH2022 network, however it’s on this menu that you can find the tool to reconfigure it for your home network.
  • App update. This option updates the apps on your badge to their latest versions from the hatchery.
  • OS update. Here you can update the badge firmware.

1.1.4 - Software Development

Introduction …

This is a shameless placeholder for the software development section.

There are roughly 3 to 5 ways to develop for the Badge (depending on how you count:)

  • Micropython : write apps in Python! This is the easiest way to get started, with the additional benefit that you probably don’t need to install anything (or much). Actually this should be the easiest way, but unfortunately has the fewest docs. Have a look here for documentation of the Python modules on the Badge.
  • ESP-IDF : native EPS apps using the IDF (IoT Development Framework)
  • FPGA : this is the special feature … not happy with the Tensilica CPU on the ESP? Just implement your own RISC-V core (or, to get started, connect all the buttons together with an AND gate…)

The other two plus (depending on how well you can count) :

  • RP2040: aka Raspberry Pico. This is an onboard conprocessor that we are using as our USB Lifeline to the outside world. As such, if you break stuff here, you can easily brick your badge. Feel free to play around with it, but be aware: THIS VOIDS YOUR WARRANTY … and not in a fun way. It’s very unlikely we’ll have the resource to help you fix the badge during the camp.
  • RISC-V and Forth: Because the badge contains an FPGA, you can turn it into anything you want. Technically the RISC-V and Forth projects are just FPGA projects, but the RISC-V CPU is powerful enough to run a Mandelbrot and Tricorn fractal explorer. A different RISC-V processor implementation with a focus on performance instead of readability can even run Doom! The Forth includes a custom stack processor and besides being useful for interactice experiments with freshly soldered additions on the PMOD connector, it can run a game of Snake.
  • Rust: just a hint or two to get you started. Ask around the Telegram channel if you need support.
  • TinyGo: Some hints on getting started with TinyGo on the Badge and some samples …
  • Arduino: this was intended to be done and beautifully polished … but then we all got COVID and couldn’t finish. You can try to develop apps with Arduino if you think it will be easier, but it will probably cause some pain. Of course, we would be ecstatic if you help getting it work smoothly.

Linux permissions

Regardless of the way you’re going to program the badge, to connect to the badge over USB from Linux, do the following.

Create /etc/udev/rules.d/99-mch2022.rules with the following contents:

SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTR{idVendor}=="16d0", ATTR{idProduct}=="0f9a", MODE="0666"

Then run the following commands to apply the new rule:

sudo udevadm control --reload-rules
sudo udevadm trigger

Windows installation

To upload programs to the badge with the provided tools, python and pyusb are needed. The easiest way to install these on windows is by installing miniconda

After installation, open “Anaconda prompt” from the start menu. Then do the following

conda create -n badge -c conda-forge python pyusb
conda activate badge

Now you should be able to run commands like:

python ".\Desktop\mch2022-tools-master\webusb_fat_push.py" .\Desktop\my_test.py /flash/apps/python/button_tester/__init__.py

Micropython

The Badge comes with a preinstalled Micropython interpreter. Python should be the easiest way to control the device and the easiest mode to write apps for The Badge, especially if you are a beginner or don’t want to spend a lot of time downloading toolchains and debugging drivers.

Before the Camp and if you are afraid to break things…

Uri Shaked a.k.a Wokwi built an awesome emulation of the badge that runs in your browser. You can use it to test stuff out if you don’t yet have a Badge or your Badge is being used for something else. Or if you just feel more comfortable with a Badge that can’t catch on fire. It fantastic, you can click the buttons and everything! Try it.

Wokwi Badge Emulator

On the device!

First, make sure Python is installed and that you didn’t accidentally delete it. Check in the apps menu. If it’s not there: install the Python app from the Hatchery by going to Hatchery -> ESP32 native binaries -> Utility -> Python and install it either onto the flash or onto an SD card.

This badge contains a common ESP32 firmware platform shared with other badges, so to learn more about the general platform and its components, start here. In addition there is also a mch22 module that offers a few badge-specific APIs.

While the above allows you to access the Python shell and install Python apps from the hatchery, here is how you upload custom apps to the badge over USB:

  1. Download mch2022-tools
  2. Write you Python code using the platform modules documented above
  3. Use python3 webusb_fat_push.py __init__.py /sdcard/apps/python/myapp/__init__.py
  4. Start your app in the Apps menu.

There’s a more detailled description on Micropython development here.

1.1.4.1 - Developing native Badge apps with the ESP-IDF

Introduction

Even though MicroPython is a quick and easy way to write apps for the Badge, you are limited both in terms of performance and functionality. If you need or want to write native applications, you have found the right place. This section describes how to develop Badge apps using the ESP-IDF, the development toolchain for native ESP32 apps.

Should I write a native app?

TLDR: OF COURSE YOU SHOULD! It’s fun! Hey, this Badge is for an event called “May Contain Hackers”, it was made for hacking in every possible way!

Native apps are amazing. The beautiful sponsors slideshow that you saw when you first booted your Badge was a native app. The BadgePython interpreter that runs all the BadgePython Eggs is a native app. Native apps are not launched within the Badge firmware - they are directly mapped to memory and then the Badge is rebooted. In other words: No walls, no fences around you. Ideally suited for writing Badge malware! Your code runs directly on the metal. This makes native apps the perfect option if you need full power and/or full access to all the MCU’s peripherals, not just the ones with a Python wrapper.

However, this comes at a (small) price: As native apps need to be directly accessible to the ESP32, their binaries reside in a special partition in the module’s internal Flash memory (if you’re interested in the magic behind it, have a look at the AppFS component). Because they are standalone firmwares, they tend to be larger than simple MicroPython apps. As a consequence, there is a limit to how many native apps can be installed on a Badge (five-to-ten-ish, depending on code size). If you run out of memory, you will have to uninstall others.

Getting Started

If you want to dive right in, here’s a short example walktrough to quickly get started writing a native ESP-IDF app.

Template App

The template app is a public template repository to use as a basis for your own app. It contains an application skeleton, an appropriate version of the ESP IDF and components for common Badge peripherals. You can find the template app on github. All examples here use this template. Basically: Clone, build, install, publish, fun. Incidentally, the template app has a button you can use to create a clone for your github user.

“Use this template” Button

A More Advanced Example

Once you are familiar with the template and getting started example, it’s time to move a step further. The ESP-IDF has tons of features to offer. Here’s a more advanced app which turns your badge into a (crappy) bluetooth speaker.

1.1.4.1.1 - ESP-IDF getting started

Programming native applications on the Badge requires an ESP IDF to be installed. IDF stands for “IoT Development Framework” and is Expressif’s SDK which provides:

  • convenient access to hardware functionality
  • implementation of protocols such as TLS, HTTP and MQTT which are commonly used in IoT projects
  • common utilities such as logging, error handling and JSON parsing
  • infrastructure code for building, flashing and debugging.

The IDF will be installed automatically (via git submodules and make commands which we will point out) but it does require some dependencies to be installed.

Installing Prerequisites

How to install these prerequisites is described on the IDF documenttion page for:

The instructions will (mainly) install git, cmake and python. Remember you DO NOT have to install the IDF!

In order to sideload the apps you develop, you will be using our webusb tools. These tools will get automatically installed, but require pyusb to be installed. This can be installed with pip install pyusb or apt install python3-usb

Download & build the “template app”

We created a basic Hello World template app that’s intended to be used as a basis for native badge apps you build. To allow you to get started quickly, the template app downloads the IDF in the required version, as well as some badge specific components you will.

To clone the template app, open a shell:

$ git clone https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-template-app my_fancy_app_name
$ cd my_fancy_app_name

The Makefile in the template app contains a number of targets for your convenience:

  • prepare : Download all the ESP32 dependencies needed to build, you only need to run this once!
  • build : compile the code
  • install : install the app you just compiled (NOTE: if you have previously used the IDF to build ESP32 code, this is different from regular flashing! see below)
  • monitor : connect to the ESP32 console and look at your log files.
$ make prepare # this downloads all the dependecies and may take a couple of minutes

$ make build   # this compile your app
$ make install # this installs the successfully compiled app to a connected badge.

# you really only need '$make install' because it depends on `install`. 

It will take a couple of minutes to download all the components. Once completed, a simple app showing “Hello, World!” will run on your badge.

Difference to “normal” IDF

If you have previously used the IDF, you may have noticed that we don’t use idf.py flash to install the app on the Badge. (And if you haven’t, you can safely skip this section. :)

The idf.py flash command assumes that the binary to flash is the main application for the device. This is not the case for the Badge, though. The main application is the launcher app, i.e. the app with the menu that starts by default. The make install target of the Makefile copies our newly created app into the appfs instead of overwrting the launch. Once copied to the appfs, the launcher can find it and the app should appear in the apps menu.

Obviously you can use idf.py flash but you’ll delete the launcher app and would need to reinstall it later.

Customizing the template app

Finally! Now that we have all the bureaucracy taken care of, we’ll start off by modifying the message printed to the screen. Have a look at this line of main.c, you can see the text shown on screen:

//...
        // This text is shown on screen.
        char             *text = "Hello, World!";
//...

This part is responsible for drawing the text to the screen. Go ahead and try to edit the text, here shown as “Fancy App!":

(The text “Fancy App!” on a blueish green background.)

Reading the buttons

The buttons on the Badge are not directly connected to the ESP32, instead they are read by the rp2040 coprocessor via I2C. Have a look in the esp32-component-mch2022-rp2040 component in case you are interested in the details.

The button handler starting on this line of main.c currently causes the app to exit and return to the launcher whenever the HOME button is pressed.:


        //...
        // Await any button press and do another cycle.
        // Structure used to receive data.
        rp2040_input_message_t message;
        // Await forever (because of portMAX_DELAY), a button press.
        xQueueReceive(buttonQueue, &message, portMAX_DELAY);
        
        // Is the home button currently pressed?
        if (message.input == RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_HOME && message.state) {
            // If home is pressed, exit to launcher.
            exit_to_launcher();
        }
        // Is the home button currently pressed?
        if (message.input == RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_HOME && message.state) {
            // If home is pressed, exit to launcher.
            exit_to_launcher();
        }
        //...

Let’s change this behaviour so the screen is briefly pink after pressing the A button. Graphics for the badge are handled by a library called Pax, if you want to dig deeper have a look at the docs here

Pax uses the same RGB (well, ARGB, to be precise) hex triplets as HTML. 0xeb34cf is beautiful MCH pink.

//...
        // Button handling.
        if (message.input == RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_ACCEPT && message.state) {
                // Make a pink background.
                pax_background(&buf, 0xeb34cf);
                // Update the screen.
                disp_flush();
                // Wait for half a second.
                vTaskDelay(pdMS_TO_TICKS(500));
                // After this, it loops again with a new random background color.
        } else if (message.input == RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_HOME && message.state) {
            // If home is pressed, exit to launcher.
            exit_to_launcher();
        }
//...

(A pink screen when the A button is pressed.)

Using WiFi

The template app you’ve been playing with has a simple WiFi connection API.

First, empty the while loop so it looks like this:

//...
    while (1) {
        // Await any button press and do another cycle.
        // Structure used to receive data.
        rp2040_input_message_t message;
        // Await forever (because of portMAX_DELAY), a button press.
        xQueueReceive(buttonQueue, &message, portMAX_DELAY);
        
        // Is the home button currently pressed?
        if (message.input == RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_HOME && message.state) {
            // If home is pressed, exit to launcher.
            exit_to_launcher();
        }
    }
//...

Instead of writing “Hello World” to the screen, we will modify the code to change the background color to indicate our Wifi connection status. Call wifi_connect_to_stored() to connect to WiFi and set the background color depending on whether the function returned successfully.

//...
    // Init (but not connect to) WiFi.
    wifi_init();
    // Now, connect to WiFi using the stored settings.
    bool success = wifi_connect_to_stored();
    if (success) {
        // Green color if connected successfully.
        pax_background(&buf, 0xff00ff00);
    } else {
        // Red color if not connected.
        pax_background(&buf, 0xffff0000);
    }
    disp_flush();
//...

(A red screen and a green screen side by side.) (A red screen and a green screen side by side.)

What you want to do with WiFi varies a lot, so we can’t explain that here. But if you have other libraries that need WiFi (for example an MQTT client), you start them after this code.

Sharing is caring!

Now you’re ready to publish your app in the Hatchery. Follow these instructions to publish your app.

For further information:

1.1.4.1.2 - A More Advanced Example

If you have reached this page, you have probably already had a look at the template app and played through the getting started tutorial. If not, it might be a good idea to do it now - there’s a lot of information on getting the prerequisites installed.

You will need a computer with libusb, pyusb, git, cmake, make, python3, a terminal, a web browser and a text editor. This should be easily doable on Linux machines and Macs - if you’re on Windows, it’s probably easiest to work in a Linux wrapper but YMMV. Additionally, a github account is helpful but not strictly needed. Check here for details.

This journey assumes that you have some basic familiarity with shell, C and git (or a search engine of your choice). This is not a line-by-line tutorial, it just gives you the rough outline of writing an app and discusses some approaches and techniques along the way. If you want to cheat and download the finished project, go here

Starting

Start by cloning the template app - go there, click on “Use this template” and follow the instructions to make your own copy (or you can clone the repo and add a new remote manually). git clone the repo, cd to it and run make prepare. This should set up the ESP-IDF and all badge-specific components.

What should we do?

If you’re not sure what you want to hack, the ESP-IDF examples are an amazing starting point. They are already on your machine: ls esp-idf/examples. Hours of happy browsing. Besides covering many features of the ESP32, they are exceptionally well written and documented (usually).

We’ll use one of these app to build our app - something that can’t be done in the BadgePython world: Let’s turn the Badge into a bluetooth Boom Box. Speaker sound quality will most likely be worse than any smartphone on this planet, but with the headphone output, this thing might even be usable for something.

There’s a working example at esp-idf/examples/bluetooth/bluedroid/classic_bt/a2dp_sink. The code example already shows how to hook the audio stream to an I2S (Inter-IC Sound) DAC. And conveniently, the Badge’s audio outputs are connected to an I2S DAC! Almost like we’re done already before we even started.

Shameless Copying

To get started, copy the following files from the IDF project’s main directory: bt_app_av.h, bt_app_av.c, bt_app_core.h, bt_app_core.c into your own main folder (they are Public Domain, after all!). And while you’re at it, copy most of the contents of the main.c file over to the end of your main.c file and the includes to the top.

Actually Hacking Some Code …

Start by integrating the bluetooth initialization routine into your app. Rename the bluetooth example’s app_main to bt_init and call it within our app_mainfunction in place of the call to wifi_init ( we won’t be using WIFI in this example). bt_init must be declarated above app_main code. Either move the whole function up, or add a declaration.

Unfortunately, both app_main and bt_init call nvs_flash_init. And nvs_flash_init may only be called once. Get rid of the second call.

The example projects defines a number of constants using menuconfig. These are defined in Kconfig.projbuild, but we don’t need them. For example, this mechanism in the original IDF example allows you to redefine the I2S pins to use, but these are hardwired on the Badge, so configuring them adds unnecessary complexity. grep through main.c looking for CONFIG_EXAMPLE and replace them:

  • CONFIG_EXAMPLE_A2DP_SINK_OUTPUT_INTERNAL_DAC : should be false, this option would route the audio to the ESP’s internal DAC, but the Badge has a dedicated audio DAC chip
  • CONFIG_EXAMPLE_I2S_BCK_PIN
  • CONFIG_EXAMPLE_I2S_LRCK_PIN
  • CONFIG_EXAMPLE_I2S_DATA_PIN

We need to find the new values for the I2S pins CONFIG_EXAMPLE_I2S_BCK_PIN, CONFIG_EXAMPLE_I2S_LRCK_PIN and CONFIG_EXAMPLE_I2S_DATA_PIN in i2s_pin_config_t. Obviously, you can find the pins in the hardware schematics, but there’s an easier way: Have a look at components/mch2022-bsp/include/mch2022_badge.h. The Badge’s board support package has defines for all pins. (Note: At time of writing, this header had LRCLK and BCLK swapped, but hopefully this will be sorted out soon).

The components directory is generally a good place to look if you’re looking for Badge drivers. All items in this folder are independent components. You can imagine them as libraries. They are automatically added to the project by the ESP-IDF build system.

I2S has some sloppy signal naming rules, which may be confusing. LR is LRCLK (a word clock), CLK is BCK (a bit clock) and DATA is DATA. In addition, our DAC wants a MCLK (usually faster than the bit clock), so we add an entry: .mck_io_num = GPIO_I2S_MCLK. In the end, it should look something like this:

    i2s_pin_config_t pin_config = {
      .mck_io_num = GPIO_I2S_MCLK,
      .bck_io_num = 4, // should be GPIO_I2S_CLK
      .ws_io_num = 12, // should be GPIO_I2S_LR
      .data_out_num = GPIO_I2S_DATA,
      .data_in_num = -1 // not used
    };
    i2s_set_pin(0, &pin_config);

While you’re at it, you can tweak the I2S parameters to our needs (located directly above the pin_config code). I2S has half a dozen different dialects and each I2C peripheral speaks a different one. Getting the parameters right is not hard but tedious, requiring comparison of datasheets. Additionally, because the I2S peripheral will stream audio data via DMA, we can adjust buffer sizes. Here’s some settings that seem to work well:

    i2s_config_t i2s_config = {
      .mode = I2S_MODE_MASTER | I2S_MODE_TX, // TX only
      .sample_rate = 44100,
      .bits_per_sample = I2S_BITS_PER_SAMPLE_16BIT,
      .channel_format = I2S_CHANNEL_FMT_RIGHT_LEFT, // stereo
      .communication_format = I2S_COMM_FORMAT_STAND_I2S,
      .dma_buf_count = 6,
      .dma_buf_len = 128,
      .intr_alloc_flags = 0, // default interrupt priority
      .bits_per_chan = I2S_BITS_PER_SAMPLE_16BIT,
      .tx_desc_auto_clear = true // auto clear tx descriptor on underflow
    };
    i2s_driver_install(0, &i2s_config, 0, NULL);

Almost Ready to Try

We’re close to getting something working. Just four things before we try our first build:

  • Change our app name: The projects Makefile contains an install target. It’s purpose is to push the project’s binary to the Badge during development. The name in quotes is the name shown on the Badge’s app chooser. Change it something unique.
  • Change the Speaker’s name: There’s a #define that we copied over from the bluetooth example: LOCAL_DEVICE_NAME. This is the name broadcast via bluetooth. Change it to something unique.
  • idf.py menuconfig: menuconfig allows you to enable and configure the components in your project. First, enable bluetooth. Start the tool with make menuconfig, go to Component config > Bluetooth and enable it. Go to Bluedroid Options and enable Classic Bluetooth and A2DP(Advanced Audio Distribution Profile = what bluetooth speakers do). Later on, menuconfig is a good place to disable unneeded software components. For now, we don’t care.
  • Add files to compile: Remember that we added additional ‘*.c’ files, bt_app_av.c and bt_app_core.c? The project’s build process works roughly as follows: make build triggers idf.py build which in turn uses cmake. For now you don’t need to understand this in detail,you just have to tell the build system about the new files. We need to edit main/CMakeLists.txt. When you’re done, the SRCS section should look something like this:
    SRCS
        "main.c"
        "bt_app_core.c"
        "bt_app_av.c"

Now it’s time to make. Type make prepare, this downloads all the prerequisite tools and code. This process might take a while. It will fell like an eternity. Meanwhile, whistle the Jeopary theme song. Drink some water. Wash your hands. Give a polite, honest compliment to a stranger.

The make process should have finished by now. Now type make build. If this fails, you probably didn’t follow the steps properly (most likely the compliment part). No worries, subsequent builds will be faster.

Now, run make install. If there’s an error concerning missing USB, repeat the libusb and pyusb install steps. If you get a UnicodeEncodeError in printProgressBar, you’re using a Mac and you can solve this problem by editing tools/webusb.py: Replace the fill character with another character, e.g. *. Or fix it and create your first PR to the tools repo!

If everything went as expected, you should see a WebUSB screen on the Badge and a progress bar in the terminal. Once upload and verification completes, the Badge should reboot and show the “Hello world” screen of the template app. … Boring!

Take your phone or other bluetooth device, scan for new devices. Select BadgeBoomBox or whatever you chose for your speaker’s name and pair them. Make sure the speaker switch on your Badge is turned on. Play some music. Hear it? That amazing sound of no bass? Unbelievable.

Understand What’s Going On

Good work! Let’s take a short break and look at what the app is doing (hey, we didn’t write much of it yet). ESP-IDF has a logging facility that is used in the example code (look for ESP_LOGI, ESP_LOGE, ESP_LOGD etc.). We can monitor the logs with make monitor (if it does not work, you might want to set the PORT environment variable to the ESP’s /dev/tty* ). If you succeed, you will see bluetooth connection and disconnection events and all sorts of interesting things happening. For example:

  • There are “volume change simulation” events. Too bad we didn’t look into the example before - the example code simulates volume controls and a user randomly turning the volume up and down to showcase the AVRC (Audio/Video Remote Control) features. This has to go. But just the “random volume change” part - we may want to hook the volume control to our buttons. The simulation is executed in a separate task, look for s_vcs_task_hdl in bt_app_av.c and surgically remove it from the source code along with volume_change_simulation.

  • If you connected specific devices, e.g. an Android phone, you might be surprised to see that the phone will not only send connect/disconnect and play/pause events, but sometimes also track titles as well as album and artist names. Wouldn’t it be great to see this on the screen?

AVRC is not consistently used by all devices. Some features are used, some not. Anyway, let’s have some fun with it.

Another nice thing to have would be a dB-Meter. Our next task is to sift through the code to see where the audio stream passes by to analyze it.

Side note: Tasks, Events, FreeRTOS messaging and our threading approach

ESP-IDF makes heavy use of FreeRTOS. Two essential building blocks of FreeRTOS are Tasks and Queues. Tasks can be seen as threads: Independent, preemptively scheduled sequences of operation. Each application has a main thread (the one that executes app_main), a timer thread and possibly other threads (e.g. for bluetooth, Networking and other things). Queues are often used to pass events and other information from one task to another. They are basically thread-safe FIFO buffers. One task (or an interrupt) posts elements into the queue and another task can wait for elements to arrive in that queue.

The template app already uses one queue: The RP2040 firmware will post button presses into this queue. The application’s main loop waits for button press events to arrive and reacts to it by setting a new random color and redrawing the screen.

The bluetooth stack uses its own tasks. Our task, the main task, controls the screen and user interaction (and it’s a good idea to restrict this to a single task). So if we want to receive bluetooth information in the main task, it’s a good idea to use a queue. bluetooth event -> queue -> main task reacts.

But our main task is already blocked waiting for the button press queue! How can we receive our Bluethooth events? Could we use the button queue for our bluetooth events? Yes you could! But it’s not polite to push things into other’s queues without prior consent. So we don’t.

There’s another option: Queue sets are used to combine queues and (other things) and wait on several events simultaneously.

So we’ll create a new audioQueue to send us messages whenever there’s a relevant bluetooth and/or audio event. We also use this queue to send audio level updates regularly.

Queue entries can have data attached to them. This is often a struct with an event type and additional data, typically implemented as a union so that different events can have different data associated with them. It’s good practice to keep these entries short because queues will have to allocate several instances prior to usage (Real Time OSes prefer allocating a fixed amount of memory at start instead of dynamically allocating memory during runtime).

To keep the queued data short, we will not include the full audio stack state in the queue entries. Instead we’ll generate an event to notify that the state changed, but not what actually changed. For this, we use another mechanism to get data safely from one task to another: Semaphores used as mutexes / locks. The bluetooth stack will collect its own state in a struct. The main task can request a copy of that state struct. All accesses to members of that struct will be embedded in a lock, making sure that only one task has access to this struct at any instance in time.

Queues are good for pushing information from one task to another, mutexes are good for pulling. Admittedly, we could have used just queues in this case, but this example is supposed to be at least slightly educational…

In addition to the “something changed in the bluetooth audio state” event, we will have a dB-Meter-update event that should be sent in roughly 20-50Hz intervals so that we can have a smooth noise meter animation.

Who should manage the queue? The queue could be located either in the bt_app_*** part or in our main.c. Both are good options. We will add them to main.c, reasoning that the bt_app_*** is a generic service and should not make any assumptions about hosting application. As a consequence, the bt_app_*** part will just issue callbacks whenever something interesting happens. The code we’ll write in main.c takes care of queueing these events.

We will leave the well-paved path of documenting every changed part in the code here. The remaining document will show some examples. As said, the full code is in the repository.

Getting metadata

After some light reading, you’ll quickly get a better overview over the bluetooth app: naming suggest that bt_app_core.c seems to do the actual streaming while bt_app_av.c handles metadata and remote control. So the audio data is more likely to be found in bt_app_core.c. And metadata is most likely found in bt_app_av.c.

We need to decide: What data is useful for us? What could we want to display?

  • Connection state: Whether we’re disconnected, connected, connecting or disconnecting
  • Audio playback state: Whether we’re playing, stopped or suspended (which is, in effect, also stopped somehow)
  • The current volume: A value between 0..127
  • Our current sample rate (no idea if someone is interested but anyway, let’s collect it)
  • Current title, artist and album (if available)

So a simple struct to hold that state should look something like this:

/** the full exposed audio state in a struct */
#define AUDIOSTATE_STRLEN 100
typedef struct BTAudioState_ {
  esp_a2d_connection_state_t connectionState;  // 0=disconnected, 1=connecting, 2=connected, 3=disconnecting
  esp_a2d_audio_state_t playState;  //0=suspended, 1=stopped, 2=playing
  uint8_t volume; //0..127
  int sampleRate;
  char title[AUDIOSTATE_STRLEN];
  char artist[AUDIOSTATE_STRLEN];
  char album[AUDIOSTATE_STRLEN];
} BTAudioState;

So what do we do now? Look into the logs (remember make monitor) for the data we’re interested in. Find the code that generated the log messsage. Insert code to update our state. Be sure to lock each access to the struct. After a change, push an entry to the event queue. It’s a good idea to clear the state when we get disconnected.

For example, we insert four lines to handle ESP_A2D_AUDIO_STATE_EVT, an event sent whenever the actual stream is started, stopped or suspended:

    case ESP_A2D_AUDIO_STATE_EVT: {
        a2d = (esp_a2d_cb_param_t *)(p_param);
        ESP_LOGI(BT_AV_TAG, "A2DP audio state: %s", s_a2d_audio_state_str[a2d->audio_stat.state]);
        s_audio_state = a2d->audio_stat.state;
        if (ESP_A2D_AUDIO_STATE_STARTED == a2d->audio_stat.state) {
            s_pkt_cnt = 0;
        }
        lockAudioState();
        audioState.playState = a2d->audio_stat.state;
        unlockAudioState();
        notifyAudioStateChange();
        break;
    }

There are other parts where the state is updated, but they all follow the same principle, so it would be boring to list them all here. Try yourself! Or have a look at the repo. lockAudioState()acquires the lock, unlockAudioState() releases it and notifyAudioStateChang() pushes an event to our queue.

Tapping the audio stream

bt_app_core.c has two tasks: The bt_app_task that responds to bluetooth stuff and the bt_i2s_task that seems to stream the audio data to the I2S peripheral. Bingo! That’s ideal!

Have a look at bt_i2s_task_handler: This function mainly consists of an endless loop waiting on a ring buffer to deliver sample data and pushes that data into the i2s peripheral. We can hack that! First, we want to implement volume control by scaling each sample. Second, we want to calculate the audio volume. Have a look:

static void bt_i2s_task_handler(void *arg) {
    uint8_t *data = NULL;
    size_t item_size = 0;
    size_t bytes_written = 0;
    static float leftSquares = 0;
    static float rightSquares = 0;
    static int sampleCount = 0;

    for (;;) {
        /* receive data from ringbuffer and write it to I2S DMA transmit buffer */
        data = (uint8_t *)xRingbufferReceive(s_ringbuf_i2s, &item_size, (portTickType)portMAX_DELAY);
        if (item_size != 0){
            int16_t *buf = (int16_t*)data;
            int numSamples = item_size / 2;
            uint8_t vol = getVolume();
            float volScale = volumeScale[vol] / 65536.0f;
            // Sample processing can go here. Right now, only volume scaling and RMS analysis
            for (int i=0; i<numSamples; i += 2) {
                float l = (float)buf[i];
                l *= volScale;
                leftSquares += l*l;
                buf[i] = l;
                float r = (float)buf[i+1];
                r *= volScale;
                rightSquares += r*r;
                buf[i+1] = r;
            }
            sampleCount += numSamples;
            i2s_write(0, data, item_size, &bytes_written, portMAX_DELAY);
            vRingbufferReturnItem(s_ringbuf_i2s, (void *)data);
            if (sampleCount >= 1500) {
              notifyAudioRMS(sqrtf(leftSquares / sampleCount), sqrtf(rightSquares / sampleCount));
              leftSquares = 0;
              rightSquares = 0;
              sampleCount = 0;
            }
        }
    }
}

This code is by no means elegant nor efficient. First, we cast the data buffer to an int16 array (we know that we have 16 bit samples and I2S has them typically interleaved, L/R/L/R/…). For each buffer, we request the current audio volume, get a scaling factor via a lookup table (perceived volume is logarithmic). Then we go through all left and right samples, convert each to float and multiply it with our volume factor. Then we convert the sample back to int and replace the sample in the buffer with our scaled value.

We also square each sample and sum the squares for the left and right channel. After 1500 samples (roughly every 30ms for 44KHz), we divide the the sum of squares by the number of samples, resulting in the mean square, and then take the square root, resulting in the Root of the Mean Square (RMS). That’s a good basis for a volume display. notifyAudioRMS() will push an audio RMS update to the event queue. After reporting, we reset the accumulators for the next interval.

Converting everything to float and back is terribly unneccessary and terribly slow. But the ESP is fast enough and this is a good starting point for further DSP (anyone?).

Bring it together

Now that we have extended the bluetooth audio code to give us callbacks whenever something happens, it’s time to bring it all to the main loop. Let’s see what we should do in the main loop:

  • Audio state changed: Pull audio state, redraw screen
  • Audio RMS levels changed: Remember levels, redraw just the level meter
  • Home button pressed: Exit to launcher
  • Joystick up or down: Increase or decrease volume, redraw all

First, write typedefs and structs that can hold audio events (state changes or RMS updates):

typedef enum BTAudioEventType_ {
  Event_StateChanged = 1, ///< audio state has changed, may be queried using getAudioState
  Event_RMSUpdate        ///< audio RMS update
} BTAudioEventType;

typedef struct BTAudioEvent_ {
  BTAudioEventType type;
  union {
    struct {
      float left;
      float right;
    } rms;
  } data;
} BTAudioEvent;

Next generate a queue to hold these events:

xQueueHandle audioQueue;
audioQueue = xQueueCreate( 10, sizeof(BTAudioEvent) );

Now we need callback functions to call from the bluetooth part (running in the the bluetooth task!). Their purpose is to push a BTAudioEvent into the audioQueue:

/** callback from bt_app_av: state has changed */
void audioStateChange() {
  BTAudioEvent evt = {
    .type = Event_StateChanged
  };
  xQueueSend(audioQueue, &evt, 0);  //evt is copied to queue
}

/** callback from bt_app_core: new volume measurement */
void audioRMSUpdate(float left, float right) {
  BTAudioEvent evt;
  evt.type = Event_RMSUpdate;
  evt.data.rms.left = left;
  evt.data.rms.right = right;
  xQueueSend(audioQueue, &evt, 0); //evt is copied to queue
}

Next, register the callbacks (not shown: They will just be stored in global variables and called when necessary)

  setAudioStateChangeCB(&audioStateChange);
  setAudioRmsCB(&audioRMSUpdate);

At this point, updates from the bluetooth stack will end up in our audioQueue. Time to combine the queues:

  QueueSetHandle_t queueSet = xQueueCreateSet(20);
  xQueueAddToSet(buttonQueue, queueSet);
  xQueueAddToSet(audioQueue, queueSet);

Finally, we can write our main event loop:

  while (1) { //handle events from both button and audio queue
    QueueSetMemberHandle_t queue = xQueueSelectFromSet(queueSet, portMAX_DELAY);
    if (queue == buttonQueue) {
      rp2040_input_message_t message;
      xQueueReceive(buttonQueue, &message, 0);
      if (message.state) {
        switch(message.input) {
          case RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_HOME:
            exit_to_launcher();
            break;
          case RP2040_INPUT_JOYSTICK_UP:
            volume_set_by_local_host(audioState.volume < 122 ? (audioState.volume+5) : 127);
            drawAll();
            break;
          case RP2040_INPUT_JOYSTICK_DOWN:
            volume_set_by_local_host(audioState.volume > 5 ? (audioState.volume-5) : 0);
            drawAll();
            break;

        }
      }
    } else if (queue == audioQueue) { //audio event
      BTAudioEvent evt;
      xQueueReceive(audioQueue, &evt, 0);
      if (evt.type == Event_StateChanged) { //state changed: update main UI
        getAudioState(&audioState);
        drawAll();
      } else if (evt.type == Event_RMSUpdate) {  //RMS: Update bars
        float leftDB = 20 * log10(evt.data.rms.left);
        float rightDB = 20 * log10(evt.data.rms.right);
        leftDBMeter = (leftDB - DBMETER_MIN) / (DBMETER_MAX - DBMETER_MIN);
        rightDBMeter = (rightDB - DBMETER_MIN) / (DBMETER_MAX - DBMETER_MIN);
        drawDBMeter();
      }
    }
  }

The xQueueSelectFromSet will wait until am event arrives in one of the queues and return which queue was active. The rest is dispatch: If the origin was the button queue, react to button or joystick input. If it was an audio event, redraw the level meter or the whole screen. The RMS update will convert the RMS to dB by calculating the logarithm (as said above, perceived volume is logarithmic). Then, the values will be scaled to fill the screen. The values DBMETER_MIN and DBMETER_MAX are arbitrarily chosen so that the level meter shows something useful.

Show it!

We’ve put some effort into collecting and merging data to display. Now it’s time to visualize the data. The Badge comes with a convenient graphics package that allows us to draw shapes and write text. It draws to a bitmap and then transfers the bitmap to the screen. Currently, the transfer to screen is not very fast as it uses the MCU to control the transfer (anyone interested in implementing DMA transfers? Pull Request, plz!). Smooth fullscreen animations will be difficult. However, it’s possible to just transfer parts of the buffer. The only smooth animation we need is the level meter.

For simplicity, let’s draw that as a horizontal bar graph (expanding to the left and right from center for the left and right channel) at the bottom of the screen and put it in a separate drawing function, drawDBMeter(). The remaining screen is drawn in drawAll(), which will, in turn, call drawDBMeter(). This way we can either update the DB graph quickly or the whole screen slowly. Both functions will transfer their parts to the screen.

void drawDBMeter() {
  if ((audioState.connectionState != ESP_A2D_CONNECTION_STATE_CONNECTED) || (audioState.playState != ESP_A2D_AUDIO_STATE_STARTED)) {
    leftDBMeter = 0;
    rightDBMeter = 0;
  }
  int halfWidth = (ILI9341_WIDTH / 2);
  float l = (leftDBMeter < 0) ? 0 : (leftDBMeter > 1) ? 1 : leftDBMeter;
  float r = (rightDBMeter < 0) ? 0 : (rightDBMeter > 1) ? 1 : rightDBMeter;
  int leftPix = halfWidth * l;
  int rightPix = halfWidth * r;
  int p1 = halfWidth - leftPix;
  int p2 = halfWidth + rightPix;
  int y = ILI9341_HEIGHT-DBMETER_HEIGHT;
  pax_col_t bgCol = pax_col_rgb(0,0,0);
  pax_col_t fgCol = pax_col_rgb(255,255,255);
  pax_simple_rect(&screenBuf, bgCol, 0,  y, p1, DBMETER_HEIGHT);
  pax_simple_rect(&screenBuf, fgCol, p1, y, p2-p1, DBMETER_HEIGHT);
  pax_simple_rect(&screenBuf, bgCol, p2, y, ILI9341_WIDTH-p2, DBMETER_HEIGHT);
  int off = 2 * ILI9341_WIDTH * (ILI9341_HEIGHT-DBMETER_HEIGHT);
  ili9341_write_partial_direct(get_ili9341(), screenBuf.buf+off, 0, ILI9341_HEIGHT-DBMETER_HEIGHT, ILI9341_WIDTH, DBMETER_HEIGHT);
}

The code relies on the audioState struct and the leftDBMeter and rightDBMeter variables (all are local to the main task, so we don’t need to worry about threading here). DBMETER_HEIGHT is a global variable determining the height of the bar in pixels and ILI9341_WIDTH and ILI9341_HEIGHT are variables defined in the display driver component included with the template app. Drawing is pretty straightforward:

  • If we’re currently not playing music, the meter should be at zero
  • Levels are clamped and then scaled to screen size
  • The bar graph always consists of a white rectangle in the middle and two black rectangles at the sides. It would be slightly easier to fill the whole area black and then a white rectangle over it, but that would touch some pixels twice. The three-rectangles-approach only sets each pixel once.
  • In the end, the ili9341_write_partial_direct() call transfers the screen portion of the bar graph to the screen.

The drawAll() function is longer but even easier:

void drawAll() {
  static const char disconnected[] = "Disconnected";
  static const char connecting[] = "Connecting...";
  static const char disconnecting[] = "Disconnecting...";
  static const char stopped[] = "Stopped";
  static const char playing[] = "Playing";
  
  pax_col_t bgCol = pax_col_rgb(0,0,0);
  pax_background(&screenBuf, bgCol);

  pax_col_t fontColor = pax_col_rgb(255,255,255);
  const char *status = "?";
  switch (audioState.connectionState) {
    case ESP_A2D_CONNECTION_STATE_CONNECTING:
      status = connecting;
      break;
    case ESP_A2D_CONNECTION_STATE_DISCONNECTING:
      status = disconnecting;
      break;
    case ESP_A2D_CONNECTION_STATE_DISCONNECTED:
      status = disconnected;
      break;
    case ESP_A2D_CONNECTION_STATE_CONNECTED:
      status = (audioState.playState == ESP_A2D_AUDIO_STATE_STARTED) ? playing : stopped;
  }

  char volStr[30];
  snprintf(volStr, 30, "Volume: %i%%",audioState.volume * 100 / 127);

  pax_draw_text(&screenBuf, fontColor, pax_font_saira_condensed, pax_font_saira_condensed->default_size, 10, 10, status);
  pax_draw_text(&screenBuf, fontColor, pax_font_saira_regular, pax_font_saira_regular->default_size, 10, 90, audioState.title);
  pax_draw_text(&screenBuf, fontColor, pax_font_saira_regular, pax_font_saira_regular->default_size, 10, 115, audioState.artist);
  pax_draw_text(&screenBuf, fontColor, pax_font_saira_regular, pax_font_saira_regular->default_size, 10, 140, audioState.album);
  pax_draw_text(&screenBuf, fontColor, pax_font_saira_regular, pax_font_saira_regular->default_size, 10, 165, volStr);

  ili9341_write_partial_direct(get_ili9341(), screenBuf.buf, 0, 0, ILI9341_WIDTH, ILI9341_HEIGHT-DBMETER_HEIGHT);
  drawDBMeter();
}

The function just clears the screen and then writes some text to it. Most of the code just determines the message to draw. ili9341_write_partial_direct() transfers everything except for the volume meter and calls drawDBMeter() to update that part.

This should be it. Make and install again (and, if needed, debug, rinse, repeat). There should be awesome sound and an awesome user interface.

Publishing

The badge.team hatchery also allows publishing native apps. Go to The Hatchery, register, login. There should be an option to publish native ESP32 apps. This tutorial is already way to long, though. Follow these instructions if you want to publish your app in The Hatchery

1.1.4.1.3 - ESP-IDF fancy name tag

There are endless games and apps to explore on the badge, but when going about your business on the camp, most likely its main function will be a name tag. So what better than writing a custom name tag to show off your style, identity, hacker skills, memes, or whatever you want.

After having completed the getting started you should have a template app that can draw a colored background and some text. Change the text to your name, and you have yourself a name tag… right? Let’s explore some ways in which you can spice up your name tag.

Other drawing functions

The pax-graphics documentation has quite a nice list of all the fonts and drawing primitives it contains.

Drawing lines and circles may sound a bit boring, but if you duck “line patterns” or “geometric pattern” or similar queries you can find quite some nice patterns to draw with those basic shapes.

In addition I’d like to draw your attention to the shaders documentation which has a nice example to draw rainbows on shapes, which you could easily adapt to do all sorts of nice gradients.

Drawing images

Geomeric patterns are nice, but if you want to show off your art, the logo of your favourite retrocomputer, a character from your favourite franchise, or your favourite meme, you’ll want to load images onto the screen.

The pax-graphics side of drawing images is well documented. But before you get to that point, there are a few things you need to do.

Of course first you need to find or make an image. This part is up to you. Keep in mind that the badge screen is 320x240 pixels, and that pax-graphics only loads png.

Next you’ll need to get the image onto the badge. Since internal flash space is extremely limited, it’s highly recommended to use a micro SD card. Be careful when inserting it! To push the png image to the SD card:

python3 tools/webusb_fat_push.py myimg.png /sdcard/myimg.png

To use the SD card, you need to include the component, and mount it. Then you can open the file.

#include "sdcard.h"

// image buffer
static pax_buf_t myimage;

// mount sd card
esp_err_t res  = mount_sd(GPIO_SD_CMD, GPIO_SD_CLK, GPIO_SD_D0, GPIO_SD_PWR, "/sd", false, 5);
if(res != ESP_OK) ESP_LOGE(TAG, "could not mount SD card");

// open file
FILE* fd = fopen("/sd/myimg.png", "rb");
if(fd == NULL) ESP_LOGE(TAG, "could not open file");

// store as a buffer for later use, best for animations
if(!pax_decode_png_fd(&myimage, fd, PAX_BUF_16_565RGB, 0)) ESP_LOGE(TAG, "could not parse png");
pax_draw_image(&buf, &myimage, x, y);

// or draw directly, simplest for static drawings
if(!pax_insert_png_fd(&buf, fd, x, y, 0)) ESP_LOGE(TAG, "could not parse png");

If you do not have a micro SD card, and you only want to load a small image, you can also mount the internal filesystem instead.

Making animations

An animation is just some static drawings in a row. Once again, it’s what you do with it.

The template app already has an infinite loop that waits forever until a button is pressed. Do not remove that part! The ESP32 is running an RTOS that needs to do some book keeping in the background. Without some delay somewhere you’ll get watchdog timer errors. However, you can change the line to the following, to only wait a few milliseconds instead of forever. Tweak this number to get the frame rate you want, or to make a nice slideshow.

xQueueReceive(butonQueue, &message, pdMS_TO_TICKS(1));

If you can’t get the framerate you want, and are doing a lot of rendering in pax-graphics, you can offload that to the second core for a free speed boost.

pax_enable_multicore(1);

If that still isn’t fast enough, you should hop over to the FPGA section, which has a faster parallel bus to the display.

As for what kind of animations to make, a great source of inspiration is demoscene videos. Here is a page that has some implementations of a few of the classic effects, but there are plenty of other cool effects to be found all over the internet. Who’s going to implement Nyan Cat, Bad Apple, old Windows screensavers, and more?

RGB galore

The badge includes a kite of RGB LEDs, which you can do cool blinkenlights with. The API is pretty simple: First you need to enable the power gate to the LEDs, then you init it with the correct output pin, and then you send an array of PWM values.

#include "ws2812.h"

// enable power to the LEDs
gpio_set_direction(GPIO_SD_PWR, GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT);
gpio_set_level(GPIO_SD_PWR, 1);
// initialise them
ws2812_init(GPIO_LED_DATA);
// send data
uint8_t led_red[15] = {0, 0xFF, 0, 0, 0xFF, 0, 0, 0xFF, 0, 0, 0xFF, 0, 0, 0xFF, 0};
ws2812_send_data(led_red, sizeof(led_red));

As an example, here is the kite animation that plays when you start the badge.

Making sound

TODO: There isn’t a nice API for this yet. You can steal some code from the launcher maybe.

Using sensors

TODO: Make some nice example with the BNO055 component

1.1.4.2 - FPGA Development

TL;DR

git clone https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-tools/
git clone --recursive https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-firmware-ice40
python3 mch2022-tools/webusb_fpga.py mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/hello_world.bin

If the TL;DR wasn’t wordy enough for you, try “FPGA Getting Started for Badgers with Tiny Brains” or read on!

If you look for a beginner friendly, graphical FPGA development suite: https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-icestudio

Welcome

The badge contains an ice40 FPGA that is connected to a PMOD connector, a serial QSPI RAM, and a RGB LED. It can also control the display over a parallel bus, and has an USB UART link via the RP2040 and an SPI link to the ESP32 which notifies the FPGA on the state of the buttons and offers read access to large data files.

You can start with having a look at the top-level diagram of the badge hardware of the complete badge, then proceed to the schematic and pin constraints file.

Quickstart

As with all the other methods to program the badge, step one is to download mch2022-tools. There are two main tools to use here, python3 webusb_fpga.py bitstream.bin which will upload a bitstream directly into the FPGA, and python3 webusb_fat_push.py bitsream.bin /sdcard/apps/ice40/myapp/bitstream.bin which will make the bitstream available in the launcher.

The easiest way to install the tools needed to synthesise bitstreams for the FPGA is oss-cad-suite.

You can also build Yosys, Icestorm, and NextPNR from source.

Do not try to install packaged Yosys/NextPNR/Icestorm tools that might come with your distro – the toolchain is advancing very, very quick, and if your distro packaged it three months ago, it is already heavily outdated. The ones in Debian Stable – Ouch!

The main repository with templates and examples is mch2022-firmware-ice40. Running make in any of the folders in the projects directory should produce a bitstream in separate build-tmp subfolder. Also take note of the cores folder, which contains many useful cores for basic functionality, such as providing the FPGA as a peripheral to the ESP via SPI and others.

The FPGA can kind of be used in two seperate modes: standalone and peripheral mode.

Standalone

When launching a bitstream from the launcher, the ESP32 hands over control of the display to the FPGA, and exposes an API for reading buttons and files.

A simple example to read the buttons is found in buttons.v

A more elaborate example of a full-fledged RISC-V SoC with a wishbone bus and video output can be found in riscv_doom. While the example is runing Doom, but it’s actually a full featured RISC-V processor so it’s possible to change the RISC-V code running on it, add or modify peripherals on the wishbone bus, etc.

The file read interface uses data files either temporarily uploaded along with the bitstream you are currently working on as webusb_fpga.py riscv-playground.bin 0xdabbad00:fw/tinyblinky/tinyblinky.bin or put into the filesystem as fpga_dabbad00.dat in the same folder as the bitstream itself. You can use multiple data files with different 32-bit hexadecimal file identifiers.

Hints

If you want to think of the badge solely as FPGA dev board, you can ignore most of its other functionality, just keep in mind these handy hints:

  • The two UART lines are routed to /dev/ttyACM1, your terminal program selects the baud rate.

  • The FPGA should control the RGB LED using the SB_RGBA_DRV hard macro with constant current capabilities instead of a simple Verilog outputs, as that would overdrive at least the red LED.

  • The FPGA shall wait for then lcd_mode pin that switches between SPI/parallel mode of the LCD to go high before starting to talk to the LCD, as it is driven by the ESP32.

  • Check twice before connecting external voltages to the PMOD :-)

Example projects for standalone mode

This is a list of Verilog examples available in https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-firmware-ice40/.

There is also a collection of examples written in Silice: https://github.com/sylefeb/mch2022-silice.

Blinkies

Three different blinkies are available for a bright first experience:

Buttons

A small example on how to get the state of the buttons. This is not trivial as the buttons are not connected to the FPGA.

Ledcomm

A light emitting diode can shine, but it can also detect light. This contains an UART <-> Ledcomm bridge that allows one to transfer data between two badges just using a pair of LEDs. Still confused? Read the original paper https://merl.com/publications/docs/TR2003-35.pdf.

Forth Pmod Lab

Soldered something special for the Pmod connector? The Forth Pmod Lab helps you to quickly examine your hardware using the Forth language. Due to extensive documentation also suitable if you want to try Forth for the first time.

Snake

A free interpretation of the classic “snake” game with ASCII art and a Ledcomm based two-player mode. Enjoy!

RISCV-Playground

A complete beginner friendly RISC-V ‘fantasy microcontroller’ that deserves its own documentation.

Doom

Does it run Doom? Of course!

Peripheral mode

Both the C++ and the Python API contain a convenience function to load a bitstream into the FPGA from your ESP32 program. This allows the FPGA to be used as a peripheral for the ESP32 processor, think AI coprocessor, bitcoin mining, HDMI output…

A great way to get started with this is to use the spi_skeleton example, which exposes a wishbone bus to the ESP32 over SPI.

This mode could be used to add an UART port on the PMOD by adding the following code, adjusting the top level ports and incrementing WN.

	// UART [2]
	// ----

	uart_wb #(
		.DIV_WIDTH(12),
		.DW(32)
	) uart_I (
		.uart_tx  (uart_tx),
		.uart_rx  (uart_rx),
		.wb_addr  (wb_addr[1:0]),
		.wb_rdata (wb_rdata[2]),
		.wb_we    (wb_we),
		.wb_wdata (wb_wdata),
		.wb_cyc   (wb_cyc[2]),
		.wb_ack   (wb_ack[2]),
		.clk      (clk),
		.rst      (rst)
	);

On the ESP32 you could then write the following Python script that loads a bitstream and writes to the newly added UART port.

import mch22
from fpga_wishbone import FPGAWB

# load bitstream from SD card onto the FPGA
with open("/sd/apps/ice40/myapp/bitstream.bin", "rb") as f:
    mch22.fpga_load(f.read())

# create a wishbone command buffer
c = FPGAWB()
# setup UART
# (30e6/9600)-2
c.queue_write(2, 4, 3123)
# queue writing a byte
c.queue_write(2, 0, 0xaa)
# queue reading a byte
c.queue_read(2, 0)
# execute the command queue
c.exec()

Example projects for peripheral mode

Selftest

Badge hardware ok next to the FPGA? The selftest checks for that and reports back to the ESP32.

SPI-to-RGB

The SPI to RGB bridge gives the ESP32 control over the RGB LED, which is directly connected to the FPGA.

Guide for complete newbies to FPGAs

Let’s try for short:

For a bunch of TTL logic chip to do something useful, you need to wire them up - and the way you wire these determines the function of the completed circuit.

A “Field Programmambe Gate Array” contains a grid of “universal gates” called lookup-tables with -in our case- 4 binary inputs and 1 output, and every of these is accompanied by 1 flipflop bit. Nothing special so far. The special sauce of an FPGA is their connection - that there is a dense mesh of wires in different lengths that crisscross the entire chip, with switchbox points that allow to choose how to connect the individual logic elements to the mesh of wires. By selecting which switchboxes to activate, one builds an actual digital circuit on the FPGA.

For your curiosity, here is a DIY FPGA: http://blog.notdot.net/2012/10/Build-your-own-FPGA

You should have an idea by now! You are going to build logic circuits. And you’ll probably fall into a rabbit hole :-)

Check out our “FPGA Getting Started for Badgers with Tiny Brains” guide for step by step information getting from 0 to a hardly working FPGA setup, in case you never heard of FPGAs before.

We would love to give you a more complete intro, but for time-is-not-infinite reasons, recommend you intros from others instead.

For the ones that prefer reading and want to know everything to design their own RISC-V CPU at the end of the course:

https://github.com/BrunoLevy/learn-fpga/tree/master/FemtoRV/TUTORIALS/FROM_BLINKER_TO_RISCV

For the ones that prefer videos and a calm pace, Shawn Hymel has done a series in 12 parts that really starts at the beginning and explains the scenery you encounter:

https://github.com/ShawnHymel/introduction-to-fpga https://www.digikey.de/en/maker/projects/introduction-to-fpga-part-1-what-is-an-fpga/3ee5f6c8fa594161a655a9f960060893

1.1.4.2.1 - FPGA Getting Started explained by a Badger with a Very Small Brain

Ok let’s get real.

FPGA development is different from regular computer programming. It’s not necessarily more difficult, but the concepts involved are very different.

The number one difference is: in programming everything happens one things after another. With FPGAs, everything happens at once. This probably does not make sense yet, but it will.

Badger

What even is an FPGA?

FPGA stands for Field Programmable Gate Array. A “normal” chip like the ESP32 can also be considered a Gate Array. It’s an array of logic gates gates (NANDs ORs NOTs, etc.) that are wired together to form an ESP32 CPU. An FPGA also contains a bunch of logic gates. But they aren’t wired together. You write a (kinda) program to explain the way the gates are supposed to be wired together. This probably does not make sense without an example. So let’s get started.

Verilog

The (kinda) programming language almost all the examples use will be Verilog. It looks like this:

	// this is what comments look like
	/* or like this */

	// verilog is structured into `modules`
	module AND (input  a,   // modules have `wires` coming into them
	            input  b,
	            output c);  // or going out. Direction matters.
		                // there is also `inout`

		    // everything else is _just_ like Javascript.
		    assign c = a & b; // semicolons are mandatory

	endmodule // unless they're no. It depends.

The code above builds a logical AND abstraction. It take a and b coming into the module, and’s them together and assigns the resulting value to c. When the code gets run through the toolchain (the analog of “compiling” in FPGA-lang is synthesis) the toolchain search in its database for unused structures within the target FPGA that can be used to create such an AND.

These structures are called look-up tables (LUTs), because they can be configured to take a bunch of inputs and look up what the output should be in a table. For our AND the configured LUT will look like this:

a/b 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1

This is still really abstract

Install the tools

Ok, let’s get started for real. First clone out repo :

$ git clone git@github.com:badgeteam/mch2022-firmware-ice40.git --recursive
	Cloning into 'mch2022-firmware-ice40'...
	remote: Enumerating objects: 1333, done.
	remote: Counting objects: 100% (345/345), done.
	remote: Compressing objects: 100% (229/229), done.
	remote: Total 1333 (delta 193), reused 251 (delta 115), pack-reused 988
	Receiving objects: 100% (1333/1333), 1.97 MiB | 4.15 MiB/s, done.
	Resolving deltas: 100% (690/690), done.
..... 8< ....  snip snip snip boring .....

$ cd mch2022-firmware-ice40/
$ cat README.md
..... 8< ....  snip snip snip boring .....

Get the latest package for your computers architecture: 
https://github.com/YosysHQ/oss-cad-suite-build/releases

..... 8< ....  snip snip snip boring .....

… and then download all the necessary tools from https://github.com/YosysHQ/oss-cad-suite-build/releases


$ mkdir toolchain && cd toolchain
$ wget https://github.com/YosysHQ/oss-cad-suite-build/releases/download/$MY_TOOL_CHAIN_IT_DEPENDS!

oss-cad-suite-linux-arm64 47%[================>                     ] 185,29M  6,93B/s    eta 31h
..... 8< ....  snip snip snip boring .....

$ tar -xzf $WHATEVER_YOU_JUST_DOWNLOADED
$ cd ..
$ source toolchain/$WHATEVER/environment

Awesome you’re ready. Let’s get started for real. All the examples are in the projects subdirectory

  • _common : stuff needed everywhere
  • Buttons : ~fairly simple example that wires together all the buttons to change the RGB LED colors
  • Fading-RGB : even simpler example that just fades the LEDs
  • Fading-White : …
  • Forth : a stack CPU that’s designed to run Forth
  • Hello-World : looks like a good starting place !
  • Ledcomm : … have a look around
  • riscv_doom : game. running on a cpu synthesized onto the FPGA
  • RISCV-Playground : … it’s 47 degrees C
  • selftest : … you need to do some looking around yourself.
  • Snake : better game
  • spi_skeleton : … it build character
  • spi-to-rgb : … and I’m lazy

So, if you looked around, all the examples are structured similarly:

  • they contain a Makefile we use this to turn the designs into bitstream. Those are basically a bunch of bits that are used to configure or Program the Array of Gates. And you are sitting in a Field.
  • Most already contains a *.bit file. This is the bitstream for the example. You could just load it to the badge.
  • There is an rtl directory containing *.v files. *.v is the extension for Verilog. RTL stands for “Register Transfer Logic (or Language” and describes the aspect of Verilog that looks more like Javascript but is able to be converted into logic gates.
  • The CPU projects also contain software to run on the CPU and possibly a toolchain to compile the software
  • misc other stuff

ENOUGH ALREADY you’re boring me to pieces …

Build the Project

Ok, we’ll start with ‘Hello World’. If you followed the instructions, you just need to type make and everything works:

$ make
cd /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp && \
	yosys -s /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.ys \
		 -l /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.synth.rpt
/mch2022-firmware-ice40/toolchain/oss-cad-suite/bin/yosys: line 6: /mch2022-firmware-ice40/toolchain/oss-cad-suite/lib/ld-linux-aarch64.so.1: cannot execute binary file: Exec format error
/mch2022-firmware-ice40/toolchain/oss-cad-suite/bin/yosys: line 6: /mch2022-firmware-ice40/toolchain/oss-cad-suite/lib/ld-linux-aarch64.so.1: Success
make: *** [../../build/project-rules.mk:88: /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.json] Error 126

Urgh. I screwed this up, but because one or two of you will screw this up as well, I thought I’d leave it in. If you look carefully at the error message, you’ll see something about aarch64. Which is ARM stuff. I’m using Badger-Basic on an x86, so I downloaded the wrong tools. Drat. (I actually managed to download the wrong tools twice :m)

… Several minutes later …

$ make
cd /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp && \
	yosys -s /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.ys \
		 -l /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.synth.rpt

.... 8< ....  snip snip snip totally not boring but lots of it ..... 

Info: Program finished normally.
icepack -s /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.asc /mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/Hello-World/build-tmp/hello-world.bin

Ok. Are we done yet?

Install on the Badge

Almost. Now we only need to push the newly generated bitstream onto the badge. And then we get to the exciting part: explaining how it all works! Use the webusb tools to push the bitstream:

 $ cd ../../tools/
 $ python webusb_fpga.py ../projects/Hello-World/hello_world.bin 
Waiting for ESP32 to boot into FPGA download mode...
Sending bitstream : ...................................................

If this didn’t work, and there are error messages concerning USB, you need to install pyusb. Try something like:

$ pip install pyusb
... or
$ apt install python-usb

Awesome

What you can’t tell from the picture is that the LED is actually blinking. In different colors. Super cool.

So … you said you’ll explain how this all works…

I also said I’m lazy and it’s 47 degrees Celcius. This section may be expanded upon or left abandoned with good intentions of finishing it up before MCH2022. *cough*

If it’s not done, either read the more about advanced examples or head over to the fpga repo, there is a lot of information there. Also, come by the workshops at the camp to chat.

Further Resources

No matter how far we get, this will not turn into a “Learning Verilog” Tutorial. Here is a list of resources we like to learn more about FPGA development:

1.1.4.3 - Developing Badge Apps with MicroPython

This is the starting point for BadgePython development. There’s an introduction / tutorial to get you started. We highly recommend to play through this tutorial as it will also tell you how to build Badge apps and some caveats during this process.

The tutorial will show you how to access the display and buttons. Here’s a guide on how to access the NeoPixel LEDs. This section will eventually (hopefully) fill with documentation on other peripherals. This is still work in progess. Please feel free to contribute…

Check out the API Guide to see what the badge can do.

Check out this link for an example of using the accelerometer

If you would like to know how hot or humid it is, check the BME680 example from the hatchery. Actually, this tells you about the air pressure, but you can hack it to also display temp and humidity…

1.1.4.3.1 - Getting started

Introduction …

The Badge comes with a preinstalled Micropython interpreter. Python should be the easiest way to control the device and write apps for The Badge, especially if you are a beginner or don’t want to spend a lot of time downloading tools and debugging drivers.

First, make sure Python is installed and you didn’t accidentally delete it. Check in the apps menu. If it’s not there: install the Python app from the Hatchery by going to Hatchery -> ESP32 native binaries -> Utility -> Python and install it either onto the flash or onto an SD card.

If you have it already installed, make sure to check that you have the latest version via App update.

There are several ways to run badgepython and develop badgepython applications. None of them are particularly well documented, so it’s up to you to explore what you can do and how to do it in a smart way.

In case you are interested in improving the documentation, we would be very happy to receive pull requests.

Here are a few starting points:

Run Python interactively

Start Python on your badge (apps -> Python). There should be a message on screen that an interactive Python console is availble on your USB serial connection. Baud rate is 115200. Connect to it using a serial terminal of your choice (e.g. screen /dev/tty<your_serial> 115200. On MacOS, your_serial is probably .usbmodem101; on Linux probably ACM0. You may also use other terminal emulators such as PuTTY or picocom based on your OS and/or preference). The badge typically exposes two serial ports, simply try - one should give you access to a terminal. If terminal gives a totally black screen, press enter to see the prompt appear.

“Interactive Python shell now active …

You can now run python interactively. For example, run print("That was easy!"). Amazing!

$ picocom /dev/ttyACM0 -b 115200
>>> print("That was easy")
That was easy

If you are having problems connecting to the serial console, please check here !

Not only is the terminal a great way to try stuff out, it also allows easy access to The Badge’s file system. Type import os, then os.listdir("/") to see the root filesystem. A FAT partition is mounted on the badge’s internal flash at /. If you inserted a MicroSD card, its contents will be mounted at /sd. You can traverse the directories with os.listdir() (and you will see that Python apps live at /apps/python/<appname>/). You can create and remove directories with os.mkdir and os.rmdir and delete files os.remove. Don’t screw up your filesystem too badly. More documentation on basic micropython’s OS library is available in the MicroPython documentation.

Try using the screen:

>>> import display
>>> display.drawFill(0xFF0000)
>>> display.flush()

Red!

display is a badge-specific module. There are several Badge-specific modules. You can find documentation on them api-reference (they might not be all fully up-to-date, but good enough for a start). In addition there is also a mch22 module that offers a few badge-specific APIs. Finding out about it’s features is left as an exercise to the reader (hint: import mch22, dir(mch22)).

Try some of the other APIs

Check in the API Reference for a list of APIs that work on the MCH2022 Badge, Try some of these APIs out in the emulator. Please be aware that you can’t expect APIs to work just because they have a green checkmark. It’s only a suggestion!

Develop microPython apps in the emulator

Uri Shaked a.k.a Wokwi built an awesome emulation of the badge that runs in your browser. This is an amazing way to quickly get started with app development. It’s not as fast as your badge, but it implements a surprising amount of the peripherals. Just try it.

Run an app on the Badge itself

Have a look at your Badge’s filesystem and the example apps in the Hatchery (btw: browsing the hatchery is a great resource for examples). You will see that each app resides in its own directory /apps/python/<appname>. The main entry point is the __init__.py script inside that directory. The directory may contain other python sources and resource files. Apps stored in the internal flash reside in /apps/python, apps on the (optional) SD card reside in /sd/apps/python/.

Create an app folder on your Badge’s filesystem (let’s call it /apps/python/myapp in this example). There are two ways to create a new app folder for your app: either connect to the BadgePython interactive shell (screen, PuTTY, …), and create the directory with the os package:

>>> import os
>>> os.listdir("/apps/python")
['citycontrol', 'someapp']

>>> os.mkdir("/apps/python/myapp")

>>> os.listdir("/apps/python")
['citycontrol', 'someapp', 'myapp']

or use the mch2022 tools to create a new folder from your laptop:

$ python webusb_fat_ls.py /flash/apps/python
Booting into WebUSB, please wait ...
transfer speed: 2.32 kb/s
Directory listing for "/flash/apps/python"...
Directory "citycontrol"
Directory "someapp"

$ python webusb_fat_mkdir.py /flash/apps/python/myapp
Starting...
/internal/apps/python/
Succesfully created directory

$ python webusb_fat_ls.py /flash/apps/python
Booting into WebUSB, please wait ...
transfer speed: 20.32 kb/s
Directory listing for "/flash/apps/python"...
Directory "citycontrol"
Directory "someapp"
Directory "myapp"

Now it’s time to write some code on your laptop using a text editor of your choice. If you’re not sure what and how to program, you can use the following example:

import display
import random

def drawRandomLine():
  x1 = random.randint(0,320)
  x2 = random.randint(0,320)
  y1 = random.randint(0,240)
  y2 = random.randint(0,240)
  color = random.randint(0,0xFFFFFF)
  display.drawLine(x1,y1,x2,y2,color)
  display.flush()

display.drawFill(0xFFFFFF)
while True:
  drawRandomLine()

This program will clear the screen and then draw random lines infinitely.

Save that file as, say, __init__.py.

To upload the file to the Badge, you can clone the mch2022 tools. This repository contains scripts to upload files to the badge via WebUSB.

Python apps reside in the FatFS partitions inside the badge’s internal flash and/or the optional SD card, so you should use the webusb_fat_*** scripts from the tools project. Try python3 tools/webusb_fat_ls.py /. You will see that the root directory listing contains two entries: flash and sdcard (the mount points for the internal and external partitions).

$ python3 webusb_fat_ls.py /
transfer speed: 1045.4196368656173
Directory listing for "/"...
Directory "flash"
Directory "sdcard"

Warning: Confusion. Pandemonium. Chaos!

The paths in the filesystems are different depending on whether you access them internally via the os MicroPython API or whether you adress them externally via the webusb_fat... scripts

Internally, i.e. from MicroPython (or native apps) are prefixed with sd if they are located on the optional SD-Card.

Externally, i.e. from the webusb_fat...py scripts, paths pointing to internal files are prefixed with flash and paths pointing to the SD Card are prefixed with sdcard. *

¯\ (ツ)

Copy the __init.py__ file.

Call python3 tools/webusb_fat_push.py <file on your laptop> <file on The Badge> to upload your file to the Badge (don’t forget to adjust the path for your laptop). You should see a progress message and a success message on the terminal and your badge screen. If you get a Unicode error, you can probably fix it by changing the fill character in the webusb.py script (two occurrences).

$ python webusb_fat_push.py __init__.py /flash/apps/python/myapp/__init__.py
transfer speed: 28560.15516885618
File uploaded

After uploading, you should be ready to launch your app on the Badge (apps -> myapp) and see colourful lines on the screen. If your script contains errors, you will typically see a crash message on screen. To see error messages, connect your serial terminal (see above) to the badge before starting your app.

Lines!

Be kind, rewind

Unfortunately, there’s no way to end the app yet, so you have to restart your badge by power cycling it (or using the webusb_reset.py script in the tools folder or uploading another file). Let’s add that by editing your __init__.py file:

import display
import random
import buttons
import mch22

def reboot(pressed):
  if pressed:
    mch22.exit_python()

buttons.attach(buttons.BTN_A,reboot)

def drawRandomLine():
  x1 = random.randint(0,320)
  x2 = random.randint(0,320)
  y1 = random.randint(0,240)
  y2 = random.randint(0,240)
  color = random.randint(0,0xFFFFFF)
  display.drawLine(x1,y1,x2,y2,color)
  display.flush()

display.drawFill(0xFFFFFF)
while True:
  drawRandomLine()

The additional lines will add a key listener that will trigger a reset when the A key is pressed.

Repeat the upload using the webusb_fat_push.py script. Restart your app. Done!

Publish your work!

After you’re done writing an amazing app (and writing an amazing README.md with it), share it with others! The Hatchery is the Badge’s “App store”. You can read about publishing eggs in the hatchery here.

1.1.4.3.2 - Neopixels

Accessing the Kite’s neopixels from Python

The kite on the Badge is fitted with 5 neopixels (individually controllable RGB LEDs). They are accessed through the neopixel module.

Here’s an example how to control the LEDs:

# imports
from machine import Pin
from neopixel import NeoPixel

# Pin 19 controls the power supply to SD card and neopixels
powerPin = Pin(19, Pin.OUT)

# Pin 5 is the LED's data line
dataPin = Pin(5, Pin.OUT)

# create a neopixel object for 5 pixels
np = NeoPixel(dataPin, 5)

# turn on power to the LEDs
powerPin.on()

# set some colors for the pixels (RGB)
np[0] = (255,0,0)
np[1] = (0,255,0)
np[2] = (0,0,255)
np[3] = (255,255,0)
np[4] = (255,0,255)

# send colors out to LEDs
np.write()

1.1.4.4 - RISC-V Playground

If you want to dive into the RISC-V architecture, have a look at the RISC-V Playground.

This projects contains a beginner friendly RISC-V ‘fantasy microcontroller’ for the FPGA featuring a RV32IMC processor and a selection of peripherals:

  • Textmode LCD driver with 7-Bit ASCII font
  • Random number generator
  • GPIO registers for PMOD pin access
  • Timer tick interrupt
  • LEDs
  • UART terminal, 115200 Baud 8N1
  • 1 kb initialised RAM for bootloader
  • 128 kb RAM initialised using file read interface over SPI

Detailed descriptions, memory map and register set are described in the README file.

Docs on RISC-V itself

Quickstart

Clone both the bitstream tools repo

git clone https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-tools/

and the FPGA repo

git clone --recursive https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-firmware-ice40/

go to the

mch2022-firmware-ice40/projects/RISCV-Playground/

folder and load both the bitstream for the FPGA and a RISC-V binary:

webusb_fpga.py riscv-playground.bin 0xdabbad00:fw/tinyblinky/tinyblinky.bin

Connect to the serial terminal using your favourite terminal emulator with 115200 baud 8N1 LF on ttyACM1.

Get RISC-V assembler

The GNU binutils for RISC-V include the assembler.

Unlike as for the FPGA tools that change rapidly, you can just have a look for binary packages in your distribution.

For Debian 11 Stable “Bullseye”, one gets using

apt-cache search binutils | grep riscv

binutils-riscv64-linux-gnu - GNU binary utilities, for riscv64-linux-gnu target
binutils-riscv64-linux-gnu-dbg - GNU binary utilities, for riscv64-linux-gnu target (debug symbols)
binutils-riscv64-unknown-elf - GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities for RISC-V processors

Both binutils-riscv64-linux-gnu and binutils-riscv64-unknown-elf are fine, but you might have to adjust the actual invocations to the tools depending on which package(s) you actually installed.

Despite the names, these also support 32 bit RISC-V targets.

Example firmware

Bootloader

This one is included into the bitstream for default. It initialises the LCD display and initialises the 128 kb RAM from file “0xdabbad00” using the file read interface over SPI provided by the ESP32 firmware.

Tinyblinky

A little blinky in RISC-V assembler. A nice “hello world” project.

Interrupt

An example on how to use interrupts on RISC-V, including notes on compressed opcodes and and small tools for printing hex numbers.

Mandelbrot

Explore the Mandelbrot and Tricorn fractals in ASCII art. This example shows how to use the LCD and buttons in assembler.

Hello GCC

A small project in C featuring serial terminal, buttons, LED and LCD.

Forth

This is a port of Mecrisp-Quintus, a 32 Bit Forth implementation, available under GPL3.

For more info, get the full release of Mecrisp-Quintus here:

http://mecrisp.sourceforge.net/

Useful for debugging, and maybe for you, too.

If you have not used Forth before, better start with this implementation of Forth that comes with much more badge support code.

1.1.4.5 - Developing for the RP2040 Coprocessor

Introduction

RP2040: aka Raspberry Pico. This is an onboard coprocessor that handles two USB <-> serial bridges and acts as an IO extender.

At this point in time, we have no way for the apps to automatically load new firmware to the RP2040 along with their main functionality on the ESP32, but manually flashing a custom firmware using the recovery method is possible, although not recommended.

Should you like to experiment with the RP2040 firmware, its repo resides here.

Install custom firmware

Press SELECT while you’re powering on the Badge, this gets you into RP2 Boot mode:

$ lsusb
...
Bus 001 Device 019: ID 2e8a:0003 Raspberry Pi RP2 Boot
...

This causes the USB connection to NOT appear as a serial device (acting as a passthrough to the ESP), but instead as a USB mass storage device (MSD) and will show up like a USB thumb drive.

Recover

No fears: The badge is unbrickable, the RP2040 has a hardware-triggered bootloader in ROM and is able to reflash the ESP32. Therefore you can always recover using the USB connection.

Dowload the current known-good firmware image for the RP2040 https://ota.bodge.team/mch2022-rp2040/mch2022.uf2 and copy it into the mass storage folder. Then reset the badge, and you can go on with re-flashing the ESP32 firmware. By the way, ota.badge.team has an old certificate on purpose. It is ok.

1.1.4.6 - Publishing your App in The Hatchery

WTF is a Hatchery!?

The Hatchery is an app store for The Badge! You can use the Hatchery to publish your own apps and share them with friends. And unlike other App Stores, you don’t need a Dunn & Bradstreet Number, $1000 and don’t have to worry about your app being rejected because it contains malware.

You can also sort through the apps other people have published there. If you do so, please be aware that we don’t check for malware and will NEVER ask for your credit card number or home banking password (just kidding, off course we will.)

BTW, it’s called Hatchery because it (used to) contain “eggs” because previously the Hatchery was limited to Micropython apps and those are called eggs. Knowadays the Hatchery also supports native ESP Apps and FPGA bitstreams.

Installing Apps from the Hatchery.

Probably not a good idea. It’s full of malfware and half finished tutorial apps. It’s much better to write your own app.

If you insist on installing other peoples apps, please have a look at the instructions in the enduser section.

Publishing a Native App in the Hatchery.

First off, we’re having our best UX experts work day and night to tweak the Hatchery Website to make it even easier to use! So expect some of the screenshot to be a bit out of date. Don’t worry, you’ll figure it out.

In case you are experiencing issues regarding 419 Expired errors, try deleting Hatchery cookies from your browser.

Create an Account

Go to mch2022.badge.team and sign up for a new account. Standard stuff, name and password, credit card details …

Create a new Native ESP App

We assume you have an app ready and built. If not, please check out the ESP-IDF App Getting Started tutorial!

Now that you’ve written an app: Find the button to click on to create a new App:

Click on “Eggs” in the top menu

  • Click on “Eggs” in the top menu
  • Click the “add” button
  • Enter your credit card details

Click the “add button”

  • Enter your credit card details

Enter card details

  • and fill out the form. Please select a meaningful category else the whole camp will descend into chaos and noone will be able to find anything. For Type chose “ESP32 native binaries”. Then choose a meaningful and unique name.

Enter App Details

  • Write something in the Description, e.g. “won’t let me submit without a description”, pick a license and off you go.

  • Clicking “Save” may or may not pop up some warning, depending on whether we fixed this. Have I mentioned, that we welcome pull requests? Just go to the github project for the hatchery

  • now you need to upload your app. You should be on the projects detail page which contains a bunch of stuff you can ignore:

    • min and max firmware version
    • Dependencies - this is for Python Apps that need other python apps preinstalled
    • Collaborators - this lists other Hatchery users who are allowed to edit the app details
    • checkbox “Allow badge.team to apply fixes to code” if you like other random strangers to poke around in your app to “fix bugs”

More app details!

Ok, now comes the fun part. If you look at the arrows in the screenshot above, you’ll see that a __init__.py was created for your native app. Don’t need it, click delete (other arrow).

Then there is an “Add icon” button. I don’t think it works. If you want your app to have an icon, create a 32x32 pixel PNG image names “icon.png” and drag onto the large text box with the arrow labeled “drag-n-drop”.

Finally you need to upload the actual firmware. We mentioned the Getting Started Tutorial. We weren’t kidding you’ll actually have to do a stupid tutorial to get a firmware bin to upload. I know … lame. When you’re done, you’ll find the firmware in the build folder. For the tutorial, it should already be called “main.bin”, if not, rename it. In case you’re asking yourself: the *.bin file will be named the same way your firmware project is named in the top level “CMakeLists.txt” file: project(main)

FPGA

If you are uploading an FPGA project, please name it bitstream.bin.

Once all the relevant stuff is there, click “Save” and if you are feeling brave, check the “Publish” box, this allows others to see your app in the store. As long as you don’t publish, the app won’t show up in The Hatchery, so you can make changes. This is also useful if you plan a second release.

Publish and Save

Your app should now be in the Hatchery!

Woohoo \o/

and you ought to be able to find it in the Hatchery app on your badge and install it and find it in the “App Launcher” Menu.

installed app

1.1.4.7 - Getting Started with TinyGo

Introduction

TinyGo is an alternative Golang implementation targeted towards constrainted devices such as … The Badge. TinyGo’s creator, Ayke van Laëthem, was kind enough to not only hold a talk about TinyGo at MCH2022 but also write two nice Badge examples and explain how to develop with TinyGo on the Badge.

Install TinyGo

  • Grab the latest release from the TinyGo github and follow the installation instructions for your platform. This needs to be a version > 0.24. In the unlikely event you read this before the release, you can get a special access pre-release of the tools from the CI
  • To build for ESP32, Tinygo requires an xtensa toolchain. This will very likely have been installed on your computer if you have already built a native app. Else you will need to install one. Follow these instructions from Espressif
  • Once you have completed installation, be sure to source the export.sh script (or the equivalent) to set all the necessary environment variables. TinyGo needs these to find the xtensa tools

Grab some Demos …

You can download Aycke’s samples from this repo, the Badge example are in directories name ‘mch2022-something’. Go into the relevant directories, read through the examples and finally build and flash them to your Badge using the mch2022 tools

$ git clone https://github.com/aykevl/things.git
   ...
$ cd things/mch2022-leds/
$ tinygo build -o leds.bin -target=mch2022
$ ls
go.mod  go.sum  leds.bin  LICENSE.txt  main.go  README.md
$ python webusb_push TinyGoLeds leds.bin

A new app named ‘TinyGoLeds’ will appear in your app menu. When you run it, the LED kite will oscillate in different colors, but the screen will be stuck in the “Starting in App” mode. This is because nothing is being written to the screen.

Let’s fix that. Go into the mch2022-noise example and build it… Stare in awe at the beauty of the Simplex Noise being drawn to the screen!

Simplex Noise

1.1.4.8 - ESP Native APIs

There are a number of badge-specific and generic APIs among the components of the template app. This section contains a quick list of the APIs and some notes on using them.

1.1.4.8.1 - APIs: Graphics

PAX Graphics is the default way to draw graphics for the MCH2022 badge. Don’t want the getting started? Complete API can be found here.

Getting started

First, download the template app:

git clone https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-template-app my_fancy_app
make install

This will download and install the template app to your badge, showing a colorful “Hello, World!”.

Simply repeat the make install step every time you want to test your app.

To avoid clutter, remove the graphics from the while loop and make a function containing just the graphics code:

// before main ...
// A neat little graphics function.
void my_fancy_graphics() {
    // This fills the screen with blue.
    // Color:              aarrggbb (like #rrggbb but with 0xff instead of #).
    pax_background(&buf, 0xff0000ff);
}
// in main ...
    while (1) {
        // Call our graphics function.
        my_fancy_graphics();
        // Draw them to the screen.
        disp_flush();
        
        // Await any button press and do another cycle.
        // Structure used to receive data.
        rp2040_input_message_t message;
        // Await forever (because of portMAX_DELAY), a button press.
        xQueueReceive(buttonQueue, &message, portMAX_DELAY);
        
        // Is the home button currently pressed?
        if (message.input == RP2040_INPUT_BUTTON_HOME && message.state) {
            // If home is pressed, exit to launcher.
            exit_to_launcher();
        }
    }
//...

Note that graphics aren’t immediately shown on screen, this is handled by disp_flush().

Simple HelloWorld

Let’s start by drawing some white text on the blue background:

//...
// A neat little graphics function.
void my_fancy_graphics() {
    // This fills the screen with blue.
    // Color:              aarrggbb (like #rrggbb but with 0xff instead of #).
    pax_background(&buf, 0xff0000ff);
    // This draws white text in the top left corner.
    float text_x     = 0;                   // Offset from the left.
    float text_y     = 0;                   // Offset from the top.
    char *my_text    = "Hello, World!";     // You can pick any message you'd like.
    float text_size  = 18;                  // The normal size for saira regular.
    pax_draw_text(&buf, 0xffffffff, pax_font_saira_regular, text_size, text_x, text_y, my_text);
}
//...

(The text “Hello, World!” on a blue background.)

Play around with the parameters and see what happens. Try changing text_x and text_y to see where it appears on screen, or maybe change text_font to (for example) pax_font_sky.

Using Images

Using images requires a bit more work, but is still easy to do. First, you must include #include <pax_codecs.h> in each file that decodes PNG images.

Next, find an image that fits in memory (so make it small). Add this to the main folder, next to main.c and include it in CMakeLists.txt:

idf_component_register(
    SRCS
        # You source files are here, there might be more than just main.c
        "main.c"
    INCLUDE_DIRS
        # The directories to open header files from are here, again, there might be more.
        "." "include"
    EMBED_FILES
        # This is the location of your image.
        ${project_dir}/main/my_image.png
)

The EMBED_FILES directive causes the file’s data to be included mostly as if it were a source file. You reference the files like so:

//...
extern const uint8_t image_start[] asm("_binary_my_image_png_start");
extern const uint8_t image_end[]   asm("_binary_my_image_png_end");
//...

This tells the compiler where to find the image. When embedding files, they will always be named in a similiar manner.

Finally, draw the image using pax_insert_png_buf. If your image is located on the SD card or internal filesystem, use pax_insert_png_fd instead.

//...
// A neat little graphics function.
void my_fancy_graphics() {
    // Blue background in case decoding the PNG fails.
    pax_background(&buf, 0xff0000ff);
    
    // Draws an image, but does not support transformations.
    pax_insert_png_buf(&buf, image_start, image_end-image_start, 0, 0, CODEC_FLAG_OPTIMAL);
}
//...

(An image of two oranges and an apple.)

If your screen turned blue, then the image may have failed to decode.

Try running make monitor and re-opening the app to see what happened (most likely, the image is too big to fit in memory). To exit make monitor, press CTRL+]

Getting more abstract

Of course, you can do much more than just drawing text! Shown here is an example of drawing a rectangle, a circle and a line:

//...
    // Draw a green circle (position is center).
    //                    color       x   y   radius
    pax_draw_circle(&buf, 0xff00ff00, 60, 60, 20);
    // Draw a transparent red rectangle (position is top left corner).
    //                  color       x   y   width  height
    pax_draw_rect(&buf, 0xb0ff0000, 40, 10, 70,    50);
    // Draw a white line across the entire screen.
    //                  color       x1  y1  x2         y2
    pax_draw_line(&buf, 0xffffffff, 0,  0,  buf.width, buf.height);
//...

(Transparent red rectangle over a green circle on a blue background.)

PAX (the graphics) also supports matrix transformations.

In short, this feature allows you to stretch, resize, rotate and move around drawing. Consider the following example:

//...
    // Save this for later.
    pax_push_2d(&buf);
        // Modify the translation: shear it.
        pax_apply_2d(&buf, matrix_2d_shear(0.5, 0));
        // This will no longer have a circular shape.
        pax_draw_circle(&buf, 0xff00ff00, 60, 60, 20);
    // Restore the matrix.
    pax_pop_2d(&buf);
    
    // This will still have a rectangular shape.
    pax_draw_rect(&buf, 0xb0ff0000, 40, 10, 70,    50);
//...

(A warped version of the circle, making it now an elipse.)

Where to Go from Here?

For further details about the library, have a look at the API reference in the library’s repository, robotman2412/pax-graphics

1.1.4.8.2 - Board Support Package

Most of the board’s peripherals (RP2040 USB and keyboard coprocessor, ICE40 FPGA, ILI9341 LCD controller, BNO055 accelerometer, BME680 air sensor) are initialized and maintained by the board support package. It does not implement each peripheral’s functions, but it provides initialization functions and accessors to the peripheral instances. The BSP is a separate ESP-IDF component that is supposed to be cloned as a git submodule within your project.

At start of your code:

#include "hardware.h"

...

esp_err_t err = bsp_init();

There are additional initialization functions for individual peripherals (bsp_rp2040_init() ,bsp_ice40_init(), bsp_bno055_init(), bsp_bme680_init()). Call them prior to use if you intend to use the specific component. The ILI9341 display will always be initialized during startup and therefore does not require separate initialization call.

After initialization, you can use the respective instance accessor functions to obtain the peripheral’s instance, e.g. get_ili9341(), get_rp2040(), get_ice40(), get_bno055(), get_bme680(). See each function’s documentation in hardware.h in the component.

In addition, the BSP package gives you defines to the ESP32 pinout. See mch2022_badge.h.

1.1.4.8.3 - WS2812

We all love colorful blinking LEDs, right? There’s a simple API for accessing the five individually addressable RGB LEDs on the Badge’s kite. The API is found inside a separate ESP-IDF compontent ws2812 that is intended as a [git submodule] (https://github.com/badgeteam/esp32-component-ws2812). If you started your app development from the [template app] (https://github.com/badgeteam/mch2022-template-app), it should be already set up.

There’s a sixth RGB LED on the board (next to the top corner of the display). This LED is controlled via the ICE40 FPGA (see its driver for details).

The LEDs are WS2812-compatible. If you’re not already familiar with these LEDs: Each LED contains red, green and blue LED and a tiny controller that receives 24 bit RGB data from a single serial data line. Further data bits are pushed through to its data output, which is connected to the next LED. This allows many LEDs in a string to be individually controlled.

The LED power supply is switched (together with the SD card). Before using the LEDs, set IO19 (GPIO_SD_PWR) to 1.

Before controlling the LEDs, the driver has to be set up with the data line connected to the LEDs (GPIO_LED_DATA). If you want to control other WS2812 LEDs (e.g. connected to one of the extension connectors), you can specify a different value.

Setting the LEDs is pretty straightforward: Set up an array of 15 unsigned brightness values (R,G,B for 5 LEDs).

A minimal example to set all LEDs to red:

  uint8_t red[] = {0,255,0,0,255,0,0,255,0,0,255,0,0,255,0};
  // turn on LED power
  gpio_set_direction(GPIO_SD_PWR, GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT);
  gpio_set_level(GPIO_SD_PWR, 1);
  // initialize WS2812 driver to the appropriate data pin
  ws2812_init(GPIO_LED_DATA);
  ws2812_send_data(red, sizeof(red));

To animate, change the array values and repeat ws2812_send_data in regular intervals.

1.1.4.9 - App gallery

If you have made a cool badge app that you want to show, email a picture

1.1.4.10 - Rust development for the ESP32

Short description on how to install the tools for Rust development for the ESP32 on the badge

Tools installation

  • Rust toolchain from https://github.com/esp-rs/rust-build. Follow the instructions given there.
  • If you get an error concerning virtualenv try uninstalling via pip and reinstalling via apt or vice versa …
  • Install cargo-generate (cargo install cargo-generate). If this fails, try just running: rustup update
  • Install the mch2022 webusb tools

Project workflow

  • Create a new project as follows:
$ cargo generate --git https://github.com/esp-rs/esp-idf-template cargo
🤷   Project Name : argh
🔧   Destination: /MCH2022/rust-build/rust-esp/argh ...
🔧   Generating template ...
✔ 🤷   STD support · true
✔ 🤷   MCU · esp32
? 🤷   ESP-IDF native build version (v4.3.2 = previous stable, v4.4 = stable, mainline = UNSTA✔ 🤷   ESP-IDF native build version (v4.3.2 = previous stable, v4.4 = stable, mainline = UNSTABLE) · v4.4
? 🤷   Configure project to use Dev Containers (VS Code, GitHub Codespaces and Gitpod)? (bewar✔ 🤷   Configure project to use Dev Containers (VS Code, GitHub Codespaces and Gitpod)? (beware: Dev Containers not available for esp-idf v4.3.2) · false
[ 1/10]   Done: .cargo/config.toml
[ 2/10]   Done: .cargo
[ 3/10]   Done: .gitignore
[ 4/10]   Done: .vscode
[ 5/10]   Done: Cargo.toml
[ 6/10]   Done: build.rs
[ 7/10]   Done: rust-toolchain.toml
[ 8/10]   Done: sdkconfig.defaults
[ 9/10]   Done: src/main.rs
[10/10]   Done: src
🔧   Moving generated files into: `/MCH2022/rust-build/rust-esp/argh`...
💡   Initializing a fresh Git repository
✨   Done! New project created /MCH2022/rust-build/rust-esp/argh

$ cd argh

  • Generate an app image using:
# Tell Rust which toolchain to use (you only need to do this once ...)
$ rustup override set esp
info: override toolchain for '/home/<YOUR_USER_NAME>/projects/MCH2022/rust-build/rust-esp/argh' set to 'esp'

# set some environment variables, so rust knows where to find its tools:
# you will probably want to save this in a little 'source' scriptlet ...
export PATH="/home/<YOUR_USER_NAME>/.espressif/tools/xtensa-esp32-elf-gcc/8_4_0-esp-2021r2-patch3-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/bin/:/home/<YOUR_USER_NAME>/.espressif/tools/xtensa-esp32s2-elf-gcc/8_4_0-esp-2021r2-patch3-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/bin/:/home/<YOUR_USER_NAME>/.espressif/tools/xtensa-esp32s3-elf-gcc/8_4_0-esp-2021r2-patch3-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/bin/:$PATH"
export LIBCLANG_PATH="/home/<YOUR_USER_NAME>/.espressif/tools/xtensa-esp32-elf-clang/esp-14.0.0-20220415-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/"


# finally, build the image ...
$ cargo espflash save-image ESP32 rust_esp.img                     
    Updating crates.io index      
  Downloaded filetime v0.2.17     
  Downloaded env_logger v0.9.0
  Downloaded libloading v0.7.3
	... literally download the _entire_ entire internet ...
	...
	... argh
	...

  • Upload the image using web USB:
$ webusb_push.py --run rust rust_esp.img

A more elaborate example.

You can find a more elaborate example that drives the display a shows a nice rust screensaver in The Hatchery and on github.

I’ve been told there is some magic involved to grab control of the screen

Rust Graphics

Limitations

These instructions use the esp-idf as provided by Espressif so you won’t have access to the components added by the badge team. It’s probably possible to use the version provided by the badge team, but I have not tried this.

Also: this seems to work on some computers and not on others … Please feel free to provide a PR to the documentation or a link to a sample app … Make sure you’re using the newest version of everything. Throw away your computer and by a Windows one …

1.1.4.11 - Using Arduino to Develop Badge Apps

PLEASE BE AWARE THAT THE ARDUINO SDK IS NOT FULLY SUPPORTED!!

YOU MAY RUN INTO SOME ISSUES

Introduction to Arduino

The ESP32 on the badge can be programmed using the Aduino IDE.

  1. Install the Arduino IDE if you haven’t already.
  2. Install ESP32 support using these instructions
  3. Install PyUSB for Python 3 using pip or the package manager provided by your distro. On Debian you can run sudo apt install python3-usb
  4. Download mch2022-tools

Now write your Arduino sketch as usual, by selecting the ESP32 wrover module. But instead of uploading your sketch, use Sketch > Export compiled binary (ctrl+alt+s)

Now you need to plug in the badge, turn it on, and launch webusb_push.py from the mch2022-tools repo with the path of the binary that Arduino generate in your sketch folder.

python path/to/webusb_push.py "my cool app" path/to/my_app.ino.esp32.bin --run

After a few seconds your app should be running on the badge.

Controlling the display

The easiest way to control the display is by using the Adafruit ILI9341 library. Go to Tools > Manage Libraries... and search for the Adafruit GFX library and the Adafruit ILI9341 library and install both. Include them as follows

#include "Adafruit_GFX.h"
#include "Adafruit_ILI9341.h"

#define PIN_LCD_CS 32
#define PIN_LCD_DC 33
#define PIN_LCD_RST 25

Adafruit_ILI9341 tft = Adafruit_ILI9341(PIN_LCD_CS, PIN_LCD_DC, PIN_LCD_RST);

And then add the following lines to the setup function.

tft.begin(LCD_FREQ);
tft.setRotation(1);

And now you can use regular GFX commands like so:

tft.fillScreen(ILI9341_PURPLE);
tft.setCursor(0, 0);
tft.setTextColor(ILI9341_YELLOW);
tft.setTextSize(3);
tft.println("MCH2022");

Controlling the LEDs

The LEDs are controlled using the FastLED library, which can once again be installed from the library manager.

First define and include all the things.

#include <FastLED.h>

#define PIN_LED_DATA 5
#define PIN_LED_ENABLE 19
#define NUM_LEDS 5

CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];

And then run the following setup code:

FastLED.addLeds<SK6812, PIN_LED_DATA, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection(TypicalLEDStrip);
FastLED.setBrightness(96);

// This has to be placed after SPI (LCD) has been initialized (Arduino wants to use this pin as SPI MISO...)
pinMode(PIN_LED_ENABLE, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_LED_ENABLE, HIGH);

And you can now just set the LED colors as follows:

        leds[i] = CRGB::Purple;

Reading the buttons

The buttons are controller by the RP2040, and can be read over I2C. Here is a simple example.

#include <Wire.h>

#define PIN_I2C_SDA 22
#define PIN_I2C_SCL 21
#define PIN_RP2040_INT 34

#define RP2040_ADDR 0x17  // RP2040 co-processor
#define BNO055_ADDR 0x28  // BNO055 position sensor
#define BME680_ADDR 0x77  // BME680 environmental sensor

#define RP2040_REG_LCD_BACKLIGHT 4
#define RP2040_REG_INPUT1 0x06
#define RP2040_REG_INPUT2 0x07

void set_backlight(uint8_t brightness) {
    Wire.beginTransmission(RP2040_ADDR);
    Wire.write(RP2040_REG_LCD_BACKLIGHT);
    Wire.write(brightness);
    Wire.endTransmission();
}

uint16_t read_inputs() {
    Wire.beginTransmission(RP2040_ADDR);
    Wire.write(RP2040_REG_INPUT1);
    Wire.endTransmission();
    Wire.requestFrom(RP2040_ADDR, 4);
    uint16_t input = Wire.read() | (Wire.read()<<8);
    uint16_t interrupt = Wire.read() | (Wire.read()<<8);
    return interrupt;
}

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);
  Wire.begin(PIN_I2C_SDA, PIN_I2C_SCL);
  pinMode(PIN_RP2040_INT, INPUT);
  read_inputs();
}

uint8_t brightness = 0;
void loop() {
    if (!digitalRead(PIN_RP2040_INT)) {
      Serial.println(read_inputs(), BIN);
    }
    set_backlight(brightness);
    brightness++;
    //delay(500);
}

A full list of all the registers can be found here

Reset the ESP32

Restting the ESP32 can be done using the following snippet.

#include <esp_system.h>
#include "soc/rtc.h"
#include "soc/rtc_cntl_reg.h"

void return_to_launcher() {
  REG_WRITE(RTC_CNTL_STORE0_REG, 0);
  esp_restart();
}

You can now trigger this when the home button is pressed like so:

if (!digitalRead(PIN_RP2040_INT)) {
    if (read_inputs() & (1<<0)) {
    return_to_launcher();
    }
}

1.2 - SHA2017

SHA2017

On this page you’ll find all the hints, tips, datasheets, secret codes and assorted stuff you’ll need to hack the SHA2017 Badge!

Badge presentation

Please see the talk (slides) we gave during SHA for a nice overview on how we managed to pull this project off.

1.2.1 - Getting started

Please remember the badge project is a huge volunteer effort - please approach it as a hacker, not as a consumer :). Lots of things can still be improved, and your help is much appreciated! This still holds true August 2019!

Unpacking and assembling

WiFi setup

You can configure the WiFi network by starting the WiFi setup app on your badge.

By default the badge will try to connect to an open network called “SHA2017-insecure”.

OTA update

The first thing to do after starting up the badge for the first time is do an OTA (Over The Air) update. This will make a connection with the hatchery and download the latest available version of the badge software.

Booting the badge for the first time and general use

When booting for the first time the badge will still be on the (now very old) firmware that it came with out of the box. Following the steps below allows you to easily get to the latest-greatest firmware we have to offer.

Nickname configuration

After the badge starts for the first time you will be prompted to enter your nickname. You can do so by selecting keys on the on-screen keyboard and pressing A to press the selected key.

Once you are done you can press the select button to switch to the OK/CANCEL buttons. The OK button is selected by default. Press A to click on the on-screen OK button.

If you don’t enter a nickname you will instantly skip the sponsor reel and drop into the menu!

Configuring WiFi

When you first enter the main menu the badge will try to connect to the SHA2017 network. Wait for the WiFi connection to fail and press START to enter the app launcher.

Select the “WiFi setup” app, pick your network from the list and enter the password.

Then wait (again) for the main menu to do it’s thing and press START to open the launcher again.

This time select “OTA update” or “Firmware update” from the menu. This will start the upgrade process.

Connecting to your computer

When connected to your computer using the USB connection of your badge you can access a handy menu system to configure your badge as well as a full Python prompt. Connecting to your computer allows you to see what’s going on inside the software of your badge, allowing you to debug your app, test new code snippets, upload files and load new or custom firmware.

To get started install the driver, download a terminal emulation program of your choice (for Windows we recommend either TeraTerm or Putty) and connect to your badge at 115200 baud. After waking up your badge from sleep mode you should be presented with a menu.

menu

For more information on the serial console of your badge please have a look at the USB-serial connection article of the App development section.

And now?

Congratulations! You should now be on our new platform firmware. Note that not everything works yet and that you might experience some problems.

Having problems? We have a troubleshooting page just for that.

Want to start developing apps? check out out App development section.

1.2.2 - Driver installation

The SHA2017 badge uses a Silicon Labs CP2102 USB to serial converter for communication with your computer.

You can find the driver for this chip on the Silicon Labs website.

The badge expects you to connect to it at 115200 baud. Note that the badge will not respond when in sleep mode. After connecting over USB be sure to wake the badge up either by touching one of the touch buttons or by pressing the RESET button on the back.

1.2.3 - Hardware

Components

E-ink display: the DKE Group DEPG0290B1

The DKE Group DEPG0290B1 is used on the SHA Badge.

Datasheet: DEPG0290B01V3.0.pdf

In case you want to build a SHA2017 badge yourself or in case you broke the display that came with your badge back in 2017 you might have noticed that the display is hard to come by so we also support a pinout compatible alternative: the GDEH029A1. For this alternative display to function you need to set a flag in the non-volitile memory of your badge. Go to the shell of your device and type in the following command to switch the display type: import machine;machine.nvs_set_u8('system','eink.dev.type',1). To reset your badge to the default DEPG0290B1 type display enter the following command: import machine;machine.nvs_set_u8('system','eink.dev.type',2).

The datasheet does a very good job explaining how to initialize the display and get it to picture something. The LUT is explained in the section below, because THAT isn’t really documented at all…

Look Up Table (LUT)

The LUT is a small ‘program’ the display executes each time you refresh the display. It is arranged in two sections of 35 bytes. The first half configures voltages (TBD). The second half is the program.

  // Voltages and other settings? Timing?
   0xA0,	0x90,	0x50,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0x50,	0x90,	0xA0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0xA0,	0x90,	0x50,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0x50,	0x90,	0xA0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0x00,	0x00,	0x00,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,

   // Update program
   //
   // Top three lines are the main program (bottom 4 have unknown function)
   // Line 1: Negative image
   // Line 2: White/Black flashing
   // Line 3: Positive image
   //
   // Line construction
   // First two bytes denote Intensity (range 0x00 to 0x0F)
   // Second two bytes denote lenght of each 'pulse' (range 0x00 to 0xFF)
   // Last byte denotes number of repeats (0 = line runs 1 time, range 0x00 to 0xFF)
   // If you don't want a line to do anything, set all bytes to 0x0.
   // This way you can make a quick update cycle between two screens.
   // Maybe not as pretty/crisp but nice and fast is also awesome!

   // Negative image
   // first two bytes negative image, length white pulse (0-FF), length black pulse (0-FF), last byte repeats

   0xF,	0xF,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,

   // White or black flash
   // white flash intensity, black flash intensity, length white pulse (0-FF), length black pulse (0-FF), repeats

   0xF,	0xF,	0x0,	0x0,	0x02,

   // Positive image
   // first byte or second byte positive image (don't know why you need both), rest same as above

   0xF,	0xF,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,

   // Unknown what lines below actually do.
   // They seem to be programs to, but have no visible effect on dislay.
   0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,
   0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,	0x0,

Microcontroller: the Espressif ESP32 Wroom module

The SHA2017Badge uses a Special ESP-WROOM-32 module with a 128 Mbit flash

ESP32 is a series of low cost, low power system on a chip microcontrollers with integrated Wi-Fi & dual-mode Bluetooth. The ESP32 series employs a Tensilica Xtensa LX6 microprocessor in both dual-core and single-core variations. ESP32 is created and developed by Espressif Systems, a Shanghai-based Chinese company, and is manufactured by TSMC using their 40 nm process. It is a successor to the ESP8266 microcontroller.

Features

Features of the ESP32 include the following:

  • CPU: Xtensa Dual-Core 32-bit LX6 microprocessor, operating at 160 or 240 MHz and performing at up to 600 DMIPS
  • Memory: 520 KiB SRAM
  • Wireless connectivity:
  • Wi-Fi: 802.11 b/g/n/e/i
  • Bluetooth: v4.2 BR/EDR and BLE
  • Peripheral interfaces:
  • 12-bit SAR ADC up to 18 channels
  • 2 × 8-bit DACs
  • 10 × touch sensors
  • Temperature sensor
  • 4 × SPI
  • 2 × I²S
  • 2 × I²C
  • 3 × UART
  • SD/SDIO/MMC host
  • Slave (SDIO/SPI)
  • Ethernet MAC interface with dedicated DMA and IEEE 1588 support
  • CAN bus 2.0
  • IR (TX/RX)
  • Motor PWM
  • LED PWM up to 16 channels
  • Hall effect sensor
  • Ultra low power analog pre-amplifier
  • Security:
  • IEEE 802.11 standard security features all supported, including WFA, WPA/WPA2 and WAPI
  • Secure boot
  • Flash encryption
  • 1024-bit OTP, up to 768-bit for customers
  • Cryptographic hardware acceleration: AES, SHA-2, RSA, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), random number generator (RNG)
  • Power Management
  • Internal LDO
  • Individual power domain for RTC
  • 5uA deep sleep current
  • Wake up from GPIO interrupt, timer, ADC measurements, capacitive touch sensor interrupt

block-diagram

Touch controller: the MPR121 Touch Sensor and GPIO expander

The Freescale/NXP MPR121 serves as both the capacitive touch controller and as a GPIO expander on the badge. It is connected to the ESP32 through I2C and an interrupt line.

Documents

Connections

  • The MPR121 is connected to the ESP32 through I2C on pins IO26 (SDA) and IO27 (SCL).

  • Software pullups are not necessary, as there are two pullup resistors on the board.

  • The MPR’s interrupt pin is connected to IO25 on the ESP.

  • Its I2C slave address is 0x5A.

The MPR121 has twelve electrode connections (ELE0-11), of which eight can be used as GPIO. We are using the last four electrode connections as I/O.

Electrode GPIO Function / direction Connection
ELE0 - Touch A
ELE1 - Touch B
ELE2 - Touch Start
ELE3 - Touch Select
ELE4 GPIO0 Touch Down
ELE5 GPIO1 Touch Right
ELE6 GPIO2 Touch Up
ELE7 GPIO3 Touch Left
ELE8 GPIO4 Push/pull output Vibration motor
ELE9 GPIO5 Input TP4056 Charge status
ELE10 GPIO6 Push/pull output WS2812 / SD Card power enable
ELE11 GPIO7 Input SD Card detect
NOT FUNCTIONAL

Touch

The most important function of the MPR121: capacitive touch. I (Kartoffel) will describe how I was able to get it to work, though it might not be ideal and definitely needs tweaking. I left a lot of registers unexplored, and did not implement the over current detection which can halt the IC.

The basic setup steps:

  • Initialize global baseline filter (registers 0x2B to 0x40) - see AN3891 for information about the baseline system.

  • Set the touch and release thresholds for each electrode (registers 0x41 to 0x5A).

  • Set electrode sample interval (register 0x5D) - this directly influences the current consumption.

Finally, to get the MPR121 into run mode:

  • Enable the electrodes for touch detection (register 0x5E) - set this to 0x08 to enable just ELE0-ELE7 to make sure we can use the rest as GPIO.

Now the MPR is in run mode and scanning the touch electrodes.

When the state of an electrode changes the interrupt pin will go low, and the state should be read by the ESP. Register 0x0 holds the touch status of ELE0 to ELE7.

GPIO

We are using ELE8-11 (GPIO4-7) as GPIO. The MPR uses eight registers to control its GPIO pins:

Register Function
0x73 GPIO Control 0
0x74 GPIO Control 1
0x75 GPIO Data
0x76 GPIO Direction
0x77 GPIO Enable
0x78 Data set
0x79 Data clear
0x7A Data toggle

In order to use the GPIO pins, we first have to initialize them:

  • Set the GPIO direction of IO4 and IO6 as output, IO5 and IO7 as input. (adress 0x76, data 0x50)

  • Set the control registers. For CMOS outputs and inputs without pullups, both of these should be set to 0 for GPIO4-7. (adress 0x73, data 0x00 and adress 0x74, data 0x00)

  • Enable GPIO4-7 by writing 0xF0 to the GPIO Enable register. (adress 0x77, data 0xF0)

Next, the two output pins can be set to HIGH, LOW, or their state can be toggled with the Data Set, Data Clear, and Data Toggle registers. The state of the input pins can be read in register 0x01.

The GPIO5 and GPIO7 inputs have external pullup resistors, so they do not need internal bias.

IRQ

The IRQ-pin is connected to the ESP32 on IO25. It is an active-low pin that triggers on a touch-event (being touched or no longer being touched) and resets upon reading the registers via I2c. That way you can easily do an interrupt in your code or choose to ignore inputs until you have time to handle them.

LEDs: the blinky LEDs you can add

There are six pads for WS2812 or SK6812 LEDs on the front. Guess what? You can add them on yourself! Why? Because adding components to the front of the board is expensive (the board has to go through the machine twice). Have no fear, at camp there are plenty of capable hackers to help you if soldering isn’t your thing.

The LEDs are powered via a mosfet switched on by ELE10 on the MPR121 (i2c adress 0x5A, write to register 0x78, data 0x40). After that, blast your favorite WS2812 or SK6812 routine through GPIO32 on the ESP32! Have fun burning your eyes!

Using our platform firmware? See the neopixel API description for more information.

import neopixel
data = [0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF]*6 #Fully turn on all the LEDs
neopixel.send(bytes(data))

Expanding

More you say? You want more? Sure, The data-out from the last LED is broken out on the expansion connector.

Be careful with drawing power from this connector, you could burn out the regulator, a fuse or just drain your battery really fast!

Power and battery

  • Pin-compatible with the AMS1117, but we do not recommend that one because of its high quiescent current consumption!

Battery

The SHA2017 badge uses a lithium polymer battery.

Technology Lithium Polymer
Capacity 1000mAh
Cells 1 (1S, 3.7v)
Protection Built-in: over/under voltage and over current
Connector JST-PH3

USB-serial: Silicon Labs CP2102

Requires driver under macOS, found at the Silicon Labs website

Add-ons

Connector pinout:

GND LED_POWER IO_33 IO_16 IO_17 I2C_SCL
3V3_SWITCHED GND IO_12 IO_4 LED_DATA_OUT I2C_SDA

Hacks

Weatherproofing

  • Nailpolish seems to do the trick. Switches on the back will probably be unusable after applying it…

  • Plastik70 from Kontakt Chemie works ok (cover switches, USB and SD card slot with tape before spraying it)

1.2.4 - Troubleshooting

Boot issues

When on battery

Brownout protection might be kicking in on boot, try plugging in the micro USB and press the reset button.

With USB plugged in

Try disconnecting the battery to see if that causes the problems. If the badge still does not respond try connecting using a terminal emulator to see what’s going on.

Display

Sluggish

When your display responds sluggish (more than on other badges) or is for instance unable to clear the display in one pass, check the soldering on the display connector first.

Ghosting

When you update the display too frequently without proper clearing cycles (inverted image, black screen, white screen, positive image) you may experience something that looks like it was burned in. You can recover your screen by doing the black and white flashes (LOTS of them). Also letting the display rest (without power!) seems to alleviate the issue. So expect ghosting/burn-in when you are doing animations. We do not know the long term effect of (ab)using the display like this.

Removing

Removing the display is not something we recommend. Break it at your own risk. The trick seems to be to first remove the cable from the connector on the back, pull it through the hole. Now you can carefully push and wiggle the display downward towards the buttons. If you’re lucky the glue-dots havent hardened yet and you can remove the display. Come by the badge tent for new gluedots when you’re done (limited supplies).

Touch input and LED/SD card power control (MPR121)

Touch input is not working

Check the soldering on the MP121. Reflow if necessary.

LED power not working

If your LEDs aren’t getting any power either the MPR121 or the transistor is suspect.

Buzzer motor not working

Either the MPR121 or the transistor are suspect.

Other issues

Please contact us to help you figure things out either online or by visiting us at a camp or event.

1.3 - CampZone 2020

Available Python API modules:

1.4 - Hackerhotel 2020

badge

The project

Welcome to Hackerhotel 2020, where you may check-out any time you want but you may never leave…

…just kidding of course, but our Egyptian cat goddess badge will be watching over you both during and after the event.

This badge is a bit different from our other badges: it’s a challenge badge. No apps, no Python, but instead a story for you to experience filled with puzzles and lore!

The Hackerhotel 2020 badge is a mixed reality escape room. Reminiscent of the classic ‘text adventures’ but with interactions in the real world, it will present you with many challenges to overcome in both the virtual and the real hotel.

The story so far…

comic

Want a big version to make a poster? Click here

In the bag

Your badgekit contains all the essentials:

  • badge
  • lanyard
  • batteries

If you forgot to bring your USB to Serial adapter, you can pick one up at the badge hacking area if needed. We didn’t buy 350 of them, so please only pick one up if you need one!

The same goes for the headphones. They won’t be in the bag, but pick up a pair if you need one. Note: ours won’t be as nice as the one you already have!

Getting started

Did you just receive your badge at the event? Great! Plug in the batteries and you can start playing the minigames on the badge right away. There are four buttons on the front of the device using which you can control the games. Good luck figuring out how it works, as we’re leaving that part as a little secret!

Please pay attention to the batteries when plugging them in. Orient them like so: batteries.png

Before plugigng in shitty addons please read the notes mentioned in the Errata section of this page!

Please do not bring front of badge in contact with anything metallic. All exposed metal is GND, and the battery-terminals poke out. Short them: battery overheats. When storing badge: please remove batteries.

Playing the game

To play the “escape from Hackerhotel” challenge you need to connect your badge to a computer. You can do this by connecting a USB-serial converter with 3.3 volt signal levels to the GND, RX and TX pins of the shitty-addon (SAO) connector. The TX pin is the pin transmitting data to your computer, the RX pin is for sending data from your computer to the badge.

The badge will present you with a text entry prompt when you connect to it using a terminal emulator configured for 115200 baud, 8-bit data width, no pairity bit and 1 stop-bit (115200 8n1). You might have to type an “h” followed by ENTER to get the badge to show it’s prompt.

Installing a terminal emulator

Errata

Some mistakes were made both in the design and during assembly, which we couldn’t fix in time for the event.

Troubleshooting

3 red lights

redlights Two red eyes and a red diamond an an unresponsive badge are the notification that the EEprom has been corrupted. Either you broke it, the code broke it, or it was another fault. No worries, visit a friendly badge.team member and they can program that chip for you in under 15 seconds!

SAO

The SAO (shitty add-on) connector has been placed on the bottom of the badge, while it was intended to be placed on the top side. This means that the pinout of the SAO connector is mirrored when compared to the SAO specifications. The pinout mentioned on the silkscreen of your badge does properly match the connector, so no worries there. Should you want to plug in a shitty-addon, then you will have to remove and replace the connector.

At the badge assembly, both during Hackerhotel 2020 and during future events where we attend we will be sure to take some extra SAO connectors with us, together with the necessary equipment for doing this small rework step.

Undo the rework (if you want to)

Other mistakes are more visible, but less obvious: we’ve mirrored the pinout of the LEDs on this badge. To work around this issue we’ve removed the N-mosfets used to drive the LED-matrix and replaced them with bodgewires. To get the most light intensity out of your badge and to restore your badge to it’s full potential you can flip the leds (they’re symmetric), solder some SOT23 N-mosfets back in place and re-flash the firmware to drive the LED-matrix the right way round. Doing this rework takes a lot of time (30 minutes or more), but we’re glad to be of assistance should you want to attempt this.

Get the firmware (To be released after event) and go to resources.h and enable #define PURIST_BADGE and flash following instructions.

You can find a manual for fully reworking your badge here.

CYBER SCARAB

Our friends at Tilde Industries made a very nice addon for the badge. Find out more on their website.

1.4.1 - Connecting on Linux

We get it. The square black Lenovo is still number one 😊

Preparations

We assume you’re running a modern version of Linux.

Picocom

Install Picocom using sudo apt install picocom or yum install picocom or dnf install picocom or pacman -S picocom or emerge -atv picocom which ever looks familiar.

Done. It’s that easy.

Connecting to your badge on Linux

Plug in a USB-Serial board, and maybe install some drivers to get it working.

On your terminal type ls /dev/tty.* and hit enter:

  • Serial chips are usually labeled /dev/ttyUSB0

If your USB-Serial doesn’t show up in /dev/tty*then the driver hasn’t been installed or isn’t working properly (or you have a dead USB port or a dead USB-Serial)

Connect the 3.3v and GND to the header on the back of the badge. Connect the RX of the badge to the TX of the USB-Serial, and the TX of the badge to the RX of the USB-Serial.

Using Picocom

Picocom is a bit spartan. Start it using

picocom --imap delbs -b 115200 /dev/ttyUSB0

Instead of /dev/ttyUSB0 you should possibly use the device name you found earlier.

When you see a blank screen, press the Enter key twice. A welcoming prompt should be displayed.

Type in ? and get going in the awesome experience. Type in a and verify the symbols you see match the symbols you see on the badge. If you get question marks in blocks, weird symbols etc, your locale is not set right.

Press control-a and then control-h to see Picocom help

Press control-a and then control-x to exit Picocom

Setting Locale (troubleshooting)

1.4.2 - Connecting on Mac

We get it. The fruity aluminum and glass has a certain appeal. However getting a decent serial connection is a bit of work. Not really hard and a nice way to get started with serial hacking on your Mac!

Preparations

We assume you’re running a modern version of Mac OS. First we’ll install brew (if you already have it, just skip ahead.

Brew

Visit https://brew.sh and use the oneliner you find there to install it. It will take a bit of time but you’ll love it!

Brew is the installer every Mac should ship with. A ton of open source apps will become available to you without the hassle. Just type in brew install $appname and it will happen!

Picocom

Install Picocom using brew install picocom.

Done. It’s that easy.

Connecting to your badge on Mac

Plug in a USB-Serial board, and maybe install some drivers to get it working.

On your terminal type ls /dev/tty.* and hit enter:

  • CP210x chips are usually labeled /dev/tty.SLAB_USBtoUART
  • CH340 chips are labeled …
  • FTDI chips are labeled …
  • Prolific 2303 chips should just die. Please discard.

If your USB-Serial doesn’t show up in /dev/tty.*then the driver hasn’t been installed or isn’t working properly (or you have a dead USB port or a dead USB-Serial)

Connect the 3.3v and GND to the header on the back of the badge. Connect the RX of the badge to the TX of the USB-Serial, and the TX of the badge to the RX of the USB-Serial.

Using Picocom

Picocom is a bit spartan. Start it using

picocom --imap delbs -b 115200 /dev/tty.SLAB_USBtoUART

Instead of /dev/tty.SLAB_USBtoUART you should use the device name you found earlier.

When you see a blank screen, press the Enter key twice. A welcoming prompt should be displayed.

Type in ? and get going in the awesome experience. Type in a and verify the symbols you see match the symbols you see on the badge. If you get question marks in blocks, weird symbols etc, your locale is not set right.

Press control-a and then control-h to see Picocom help

Press control-a and then control-x to exit Picocom

Setting Locale (troubleshooting)

1.4.3 - Connecting on Windows

We get it. You re a gamer. Or thing you don’t have time to debug Linux drivers or don’t have the money for a Mac.

Preparations

We assume you’re running a modern version of Windows.

PuTTY

Download PuTTY from https://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/latest.html

Install PuTTY.

Connecting to your badge on Windows

Configure the PuTTY menu as follows:

  • Under Connection type, select Serial.
  • In the Serial line field, enter the COM# for your board, such as COM7.
    • Note: If you did not identify your COM# when setting up your board, navigate to the Device Manager and check for an entry called USB Serial Port
  • In the Speed field, type 115200
  • Click Open.

Using PuTTY

When you see a blank screen, press the Enter key twice. A welcoming prompt should be displayed.

Type in ? and get going in the awesome experience. Type in a and verify the symbols you see match the symbols you see on the badge. If you get question marks in blocks, weird symbols etc, your locale is not set right.

1.4.4 - Playing after the event

badge

Mixed reality

Since the Hackerhotel 2020 badge game features some mixed reality elements, you will run into some parts in the game where you will need interact with some elements that were only available during the event.

This page will assist you in working around those challenges so you can complete (or start) the game on your own.

The magnetic maze

When you have read the picture frame in the reception, the hall sensor on the badge is activated to play the magnetic maze in the recption of the real hotel. As you don’t have access to the picture frame with the magnetic maze, here is a picture of it with the magentic orientation of all the magnets behind the hieroglyphs. Use a (strong) magnet to enter a sequenze of N/S orientations to the badges Hall sensor. Please note that it does not matter if you start with N or S, the game just looks for a sequence of same/different magnetic fields.

walk-like-an-egyptian

Connecting to other badges (sometimes referred to as badge-sex)

During Hackerhotel, jack-2-jack cables were available to connect the badges together. We devided all badges in four types (Anubis, Bes, Thonsu and Thoth). You had to connect to all three other badge types to form a team. Without being a team, the Guard in the Dungeon will not give you the hints you need to decide what to offer at the Altar.

If you have not been able to connect to all the other badge types, there is a cheat code that can be used to simulate that you did. Enter #124W9 in the game to make sure your badge thinks it has connected to all other badge types so that you can continue the game in the Dungeon.

Make the right offering to the high-priest

In the dungeon you will encounter a guard and an altar. The guard gives you some hints, but you need the hints given to all 4 badge characters to solve the puzzle and make the right offering to please the high-priest. So to be able to solve this puzzle on your own, here are the 4 parts of the hints that are given to each badge character:

Anubis receives the following hints from the guard:

  • Khonsu will offer Incense
  • The one who kneels 3 times will bring element Water.

Bes receives the following hints from the guard:

  • Khonsu will kneel more than once.
  • The one who offers Incense will bring element Fire.

Khonsu receives the following hints from the guard:

  • Bes will bring element Air
  • Anubis will be kneeling once more than the one bringing element Earth

Thoth receives the following hints from the guard:

  • Anubis will bring a Robe as offering, he will not kneel 2 times.
  • The one bringing the element Air will offer something other than Fruit

When you do your offering, you will be asked how many times you kneeled and which element you will bring with you. This will result in a code that you will need later. Here is a python script that will generate the codes for you.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
  
badges = ['a','b','k','t']
badge = ""
while not badge in badges:
    inp = input("Are you [A]nubis, [B]es, [K]honsu or [T]hoth? ")
    badge = inp.lower()[0]
badge = badges.index(badge)

offerings = ['w','r','i','f']
offering = ""
while not offering in offerings:
    inp = input("Are you offering [F]ruit, [I]ncense, [R]obe or [W]ine? ")
    offering = inp.lower()[0]
offering = offerings.index(offering)

elements = ['e','a','w','f']
element = ""
while not element in elements:
    inp = input("Will you bring [A]ir, [E]arth, [F]ire or [W]ater? ")
    element = inp.lower()[0]
element = elements.index(element)

kneelings = -1
while kneelings < 0 or kneelings > 3:
    inp = input("How many times did you kneel? ")
    kneelings = int(inp)-1

answer = ((offering  & 2) << 19) + ((offering  & 1) << 8) + \
         ((element   & 2) << 15) + ((element   & 1) << 4) + \
         ((kneelings & 2) << 11) + ((kneelings & 1))
answer = answer << (3-badge)
print("Your part of the code is {}".format(answer))

If you don’t have python3 on your system, you can execute this code online at https://repl.it/languages/python3

Picture frames

There were two other picture frames spread accross the bar. Use at your own risk ;-)

picture 1 picture 2

That’s it folks…

With these hints and tricks you should be able to play the whole badge adventure! Good luck and have fun!

1.5 - Disobey 2020

Getting started

To navigate the menus on your badge you use the touchbuttons. These buttons might be a bit hidden, but if you look closely at the artwork on the front of your badge you will find the following Gameboy inspired buttons:

  • START. this button is usually used to enter or exit an app or menu
  • A. used to accept input or to select a menu item
  • B. used to go back
  • SELECT. used to navigate submenus
  • UP/DOWN/LEFT/RIGHT. used to navigate through menu options

Exact button functions differ from app to app as the developers can decide to use the buttons as they wish.

You can also use the badge through the USB-serial connection. When connecting to your computer be sure to configure your terminal emulation application to use serial port settings 115200 8n1. On this serial port you will be greeted with a menu through which you can start apps or drop into a Python shell.

Using the badge

Once you turn on your badge using the slideswitch you will be greeted by the homescreen, showing the Disobey logo and a welcome message.

To enter the application launcher you press the START button.

If your badge doesn’t start or starts an app different to the homescreen on power-on then that app might have been configured to be the default app. To restore the homescreen app to be the default app hold down the START button while switching on power to your badge. This will enter the recovery menu. Select the restore default app menu option using the A button and you’re done.

Installing apps

You can install apps using the installer application. You can browse the available apps and publish your own apps online by going to the Hatchery.

Setting your nickname

The message displayed on the homescreen can be replaced by your nickname. You can configure your nickname using the nickname app.

Using WiFi

During the event the badge will automatically connect to WiFi. Note that there is no internet access available on the badge WiFi network. When you get home you can easily connect the badge to your own WiFi network by selecting the WiFi settings app on the main menu or by navigating to Settings > WiFi settings on the serial port menu.

The keyboard

You select the character you want to type using the arrow keys. Then press A to enter the character. Pressing B removes the character before the cursor.

You can switch between the input mode, cursor mode and confirmation mode by pressing the SELECT button.

In the cursor mode you can control the cursor using the arrow keys.

In the confirmation mode you can either accept your input using the A button or cancel by pressing the B button.

Exiting apps

Most apps can be quit using the START button. This will return you to the launcher application.

1.6 - ETH0 2019

The project

This was a small, simple and most of all very fun badge to make. It’s a protoboard for building your own circuits: a true DIY badge!

Credits

The artwork has been made by Nikolett, the quickly thrown together PCB design was made by Renze and the prototyping board layout was found on the internet. It’s an amazing protoboard design made especially for working with SMD components, put online under the CC-BY license by Electronic Eel. You can find his project here.

badge

1.7 - CampZone 2019

Work in progress doc

In Ubuntu

Install screen:

sudo apt install screen

Then add yourself to the network users

sudo usermod -a -G dialout -currentUser-

login or reboot

then connect and switch on the badge.

Then in the terminal execute the following:

screen /dev/ttyUSB0 115200

1.8 - Hackerhotel 2019

HackerHotel 2019 badge

The HackerHotel 2019 badge

This badge was handed out at HackerHotel 2019. It consists mostly of left-over parts from the SHA2017 badge project, combined with some new functions.

In addition to the SHA2017 badge the HackerHotel 2019 badge has the following new features:

  • 8MB (of which 4MB is addressable) of extra (PS)RAM
  • Infrared transmitter and receiver
  • Stereo audio output
  • Grove I2C connector
  • SAO (Shitty AddOn) connector

Problems with the audio jack

The audio jack is mounted in reverse due to a design error. To make the audio output function properly the first and third ring of the jack need to be swapped. Without this fix one of the channels is wired to ground while the ground of your speakers is wired to one of the audio channels.

1.9 - Disobey 2019

Disobey2019

This badge has been produced for participants, sponsors, and organizers of the Finnish event Disobey in year 2019. It had a custom PCB with variations in art and color depending on the participant’s ticket. It was programmed to contain pointers as part of a hacker puzzle competition. As a stand alone device after the event, the Disobey 2019 badge would be able to run micropython on its esp32.

Getting started

Attendees received the badge along with 2 alkaline AAA 1.5V batteries, provided separately. First step was to insert the batteries, and see the badge boot. It was supposed to start up first time during the event at the venue, so it could connect to the wireless network called “badge” and download most recent version of the software. As the wireless credentials were hardcoded into the firmware, anyone who missed that window of opportunity would have to manually re-flash the badge with badge.team’s micropython configured for Disobey 2019 badge. After booting correctly, the badge would allow changing the configuration of the wireless network.

The badge needs a wireless connection to access the Hatchery, where micropython applications (called eggs) are stored. Badges can be used to download the eggs directly and use them without needing to connect to a computer.

The badge can be connected to a computer via USB. It communicates via serial at 115200 baudrate. In Linux it should appear as /dev/ttyACM0 (or the first free number, higher than 0). To connect to it, you can use e.g. screen:

screen /dev/ttyACM0 115200

Users can open the menu and navigate it, or invoke a micropython shell and live-code on the hardware. There is also an on-screen menu. There, users can trigger an OTA firmware update or change the WiFi credentials to use the badge post-event.

Hardware

This badge has buttons, a small screen with backlight, a buzzer, and both an infrared receiver and transmitter. However, the most used feature during the event were multiple SMD RGB LEDs going around the outline of the PCB, attached to the back.

Programming API

Most of the API is provided by the micropython and the modded version of the badge.team. For most basic micropython development, official documentation will suffice.

To program hardware-specific features, please see the following code examples that are valid for the software that badges were flashed with in 2019 before and during the event. This could have changed, if the badge has been flashed with updated badge.team micropython.

import badge

# to turn leds on:
# badge.led(LED_NR, R, G, B)
badge.led(0, 255, 0, 0) # set LED 0 to red
badge.led(2, 0, 0, 0) # turn LED 2 off

# backlight:
badge.backlight(255) # sets backlight to full brightness
badge.backlight(0) # turns off backlight

voltage = badge.battery_volt_sense()

# button-presses - use with ugfx:
def function(button_status):
    print("Button pressed.", button_status)
ufgx.input_init()

ugfx.input_attach(ugfx.BTN_START, button_status)

badge.off()
# use it to turn off all power-hungry stuff (samd peripherals: leds, buzzer, backlight)
# note that ir stays on

# sound:
badge.buzzer(frequency, duration)
badge.buzzer(3000, 5)

# screen rotation:
badge.lcd_set_rotation(False)
ugfx.flush()
# now screen displays, upside-down because that's how it is attached
badge.lcd_set_rotation(True)
ugfx.flush()
# now screen displays upside-down hardware-wise, right-way up for people looking at the badge

# memory:
badge.nvs_get_str()
badge.nvs_get_str('badge', 'owner', 'default')
# this returns default if nothing was stored in

badge.nvs_set_str(group, item, value)
badge.nvs_set_str('badge', 'owner', 'Jukka')

# raw i2c:
badge.i2c_read_reg()
badge.i2c_write_red()

# debugging:
# for getting raw bit value of the button being pressed
badge.read_touch()
# raw state of the badge (it's a bit value, needs a bitmap to decode)
badge.read_state()

# exit app:
import appglue
appglue.home()

# auto-Scrolling text:
import easydraw
easydraw.msg("This is a test", "Title", True)

# services:
import virtualtimers
virtualtimers.activate()

def function():
    print("Hello World")
    return 1000

virtualtimers.add(function, 500)

2 - ESP32 platform firmware

This section of the documentation describes the ESP32 platform firmware used on the SHA2017 and many other ESP32 related badges. For the MCH2022 badge new, modernized firmware will be developed which will of course be made available for the earlier badges at a later date. For MCH2022 related documentation please check out the MCH2022 section of the documentation.

2.1 - Hatchery

badge.team

The hatchery lives at badge.team and is a repository of apps for use on your badge.

Registration

Registration is simple, email can be whatever, for example test@test.com, it is only used for password resets.

App model

Apps are folders with as a minimal requirement a init.py file.

Hatchery will add an empty version of that file for you.

main()

This is what should be run after import by the [[SHA2017Badge/Launcher|Launcher]].

on_boot.py

This is what will be started on boot (if present) like so from app import on_boot

You can use this to run TSR apps (take a look at the flashlight app for an example of this..

metadata.json

Unless you upload or create such a file, Hatchery will generate one . .

This contains at-minimum the description of the app and weather or not it should be shown in the [[SHA2017Badge/Launcher|Launcher]].

Hatching eggs

Installation of apps on the badge is done with [[SHA2017Badge/woezel|woezel]] via REPL or with help of a graphical [[SHA2017Badge/Installer|Installer]] on the badge.

API

There’s an api available, used by [[SHA2017Badge/woezel|woezel]] and [[SHA2017Badge/Installer|Installer]]:

/eggs/get/[app]/json       - get json data for a the egg named [app]
/eggs/list/json            - a list of all eggs with name, slug, description, revision
/eggs/search/[words]/json  - json data for search query [words]
/eggs/categories/json      - json list of categories
/eggs/category/[cat]/json  - json data for category [cat]

Since the badge.team merger there are now baskets for different badges

/basket/[badge]/list/json           - a list of all eggs for specific [badge]
/basket/[badge]/search/json         - [badge] specific search for [words]
/basket/[badge]/category/[cat]/json - json data for category [cat] on [badge]

You can play around with this API here at: https://badge.team/api

===Code===

Hatchery on Github

2.2 - ESP32: app development

This section describes the API of the BADGE.TEAM ESP32 platform firmware and serves as a reference for developing apps for our ESP32 based badges.

Getting started

The getting started section will help you get started with all this awesomeness..

API reference

Once your first “hello world” app is up-and-running you’re probably wondering “how do I do…”. The API reference gives you detailed, in-depth information about the things you can do with your badge.

Publishing your app

Now that your app is ready to be shared with the world the hatchery section will help you with publishing your app.

2.2.1 - Getting started

One of the aims of the BADGE.TEAM project is to ensure that as many people as possible can develop software for the platform. This ensures that badges and other hardware running our firmware are more likely to have a life beyond the event for which they were created.

The problem with many event badges has been that the learning curve for new developers is too steep and the acceptance process for new software too difficult. When detailed knowledge of a toolchain is required to write code and each addition must wait to be built into a fresh badge firmware update, most would-be developers go away and enjoy the event instead.

With an online app store we refer to as the hatchery and MicroPython apps we refer to as eggs, publishing new software for badges running our firmware is a much simpler process.

Not everybody is immediately familiar with a new platform though, so to help with your first badge egg we’ve created this tutorial. The aim is not to teach you Python but to introduce you to the structure of an extremely basic egg as well as get you going with the user interface. We’ll be following the time-honoured tradition of introducing you to badge programming with a “Hello world” egg.

Connecting to your badge

First make sure you’re able to connect to your badge. The exact driver needed for the USB to serial bridge on your badge differs. Make sure to follow the guide for your specific badge.

After you have installed the correct driver you can connect to your badge using a terminal emulation program.

For Windows we recommend either TeraTerm or Putty).

Connect to your badge at 115200 baud. After waking up your badge from sleep mode you should be presented with a menu. You can wake your badge up from sleep mode either by pressing or touching a button or by pressing the RESET button (if available).

After you’ve succesfully connected to your badge you can continue your quest by creating your first egg, click here!.

Which type of badge do you have?

The different badges do not all have exactly the same hardware, so there are some slight differences in the setup process.

Please click on the badge you have to go to the getting started guide for your badge.

Badge
CampZone 2020
Disobey 2020 (Secret!)
CampZone 2019
HackerHotel 2019
Disobey 2019
SHA2017

2.2.1.1 - Your first egg

In this tutorial you will create an app which displays “Hello, world!” on the display of your badge, while reacting to input from the buttons on your badge.

Executing code

After you connect to your badge (and wake it up) you will be greeted by the built in menu. Selecting the “Python shell” menu option and pressing RETURN to accept you will be greeted by a prompt.

shell

On this shell you can type python commands like you would on a computer. For example you could enter print("Hello, world!") to have your badge echo that same text back to you.

Should you want to paste bigger chuncks of code at once then you can use the builtin “paste mode” to do so. You can access this mode by pressing CTRL+E on your keyboard. You can then press CTRL+D to execute the pasted code or press CTRL+C to cancel.

Pressing CTRL+D outside of paste mode will reboot your badge, returning you back to the menu. Pressing CTRL+C outside of paste mode will stop the currently running command or app and return to the shell.

The display

To display text, images, shapes or other graphics on the display of your badge you use the display API.

The following example code demonstrates how to display some text on the display of your badge. It consists of four commands.

First we import the display library, allowing us to use the functions of this library in our app.

Then we fill the display with white (0xFFFFFF) and draw on top using black (0x000000). These colors are in RGB24 format, which is also commonly used for web-development. If you never heard of colors in the #000000 format then you might want to look up a tutorial on web colors first.

Even after filling the screen with white and drawing some text the display hasn’t been updated, it will still be showing whatever it did before we started… To send the buffer we just manipulated to the display you use the flush command. This way of working allows you to assemble an image before updating the screen.

import display

# Fill the framebuffer with white
display.drawFill(0xFFFFFF)

# Draw text at (0,0) in black using the 'PermanentMarker22' font
display.drawText(0,0,"Hello, world!", 0x000000, "PermanentMarker22")

# Flush the contents of the framebuffer to the display
display.flush()

Depening on your badge it might be wise to use a smaller font to test with, for example the 7x5 font.

import display
display.drawFill(0xFFFFFF)
display.drawText(0,0,"Hello, world!", 0x000000, "7x5")
display.flush()

Buttons

For working with the buttons on your badge you use the buttons library.

Each button can be attached to a function with the following structure: def myCallback(pressed):. The argument is True when the function was called because the button was pressed and False when the function was called because the buttton got released.

You can assign a function to each button separately using buttons.attach(<button>, <function>).

The following demonstration code shows how to react to a button:

import buttons

def myCallback(pressed):
	if pressed:
		print("Button callback: pressed!")
	else:
		print("Button callback: released!")

buttons.attach(buttons.BTN_A, myCallback)

Combining the two!

import display, buttons

def message(text):
	print(text)
	display.drawFill(0xFFFFFF)
	display.drawText(0,0, text, 0x000000, "7x5")
	display.flush()

def myCallback(pressed):
	if pressed:
		message("Pressed!")
	else:
		message("Released!")

buttons.attach(buttons.BTN_A, myCallback)

message("Press the A button!")

If your badge does not have the A button then you can substitute that button with any other button. The Python prompt on your badge has tab completion. Just enter buttons.BTN_ and press TAB on your keyboard for a list of available buttons.

And further?

Documenting is hard and a very slow process for us hackers. Therefore we suggest you take a look at one of the many apps published in the Hatchery to gain some inspiration and to publish your own app.

2.2.2 - USB-serial connection

You can communicate with your badge when it is not sleeping.

You can use a terminal application such as picocom to start talking to your badge. Hit ‘?’ to open the text menu, which you can use to enter a micropython shell.

You can use tools like ampy and mpfshell to transfer files between your PC and the badge, and execute python code from there. Sometimes you need a couple attempts for a request to succeed.

2.2.3 - API reference

Welcome to the API reference for the BADGE.TEAM platform firmware.

This reference describes all officially supported APIs of our platform. We try to keep these APIs as stable as possible. There are many more (undocumented) APIs in the firmware, all of which may change at any time!

Our platform firmware uses MicroPython at it’s core. Most of the libraries and APIs from the upstream MicroPython project are available in the BADGE.TEAM firmware.

The MicroPython documentation describes the builtin libraries and functions.

Specifically, the MicroPython core in our firmware is based on the ESP32 port of MicroPython by Loboris. He changed some parts of MicroPython to suit the ESP32 better. The wiki of his project describes the changes he made.

We have made a lot of changes on top of the work done by Loboris. We’ve added some badge specific APIs, a brand new framebuffer system for displaying graphics and drivers for the hardware specific to the supported badges.

By doing this we aim to take the resource intensive parts of driving the hardware to the C level beneath Python. This allows for a much more speedy experience and a lot more possibilities and flexibility.

Things to keep in mind while looking up documentation

  • There is currently no API available for directly controlling the SPI bus(ses) of your badge from within Python.
  • I2C should be used with caution as the I2C bus on most badges is used for system peripherals as well.
  • The Neopixel (LED) driver differs greatly from the neopixel API in the Loboris port.
  • The Display driver differs greatly from the display API in the Loboris port.

If you want to help with firmware development please tell us! We’re always happy to accept PRs and improvements.

Should you have ideas, problems or observations but no means to act on them then you can always create an issue on Github.

BADGE.TEAM platform APIs

Library Function MCH 2022 SHA2017 Disobey 2019 HackerHotel 2019 CampZone 2019 CampZone 2020
display Control the display of your badge: create and display text and graphics
buttons Read button status and attach callback functions to button interactions
wifi Abstraction layer wrapping the network API for connection to WiFi networks
system Abstraction layer for starting apps and controlling badge behaviour and sleep mode
consts Reference containing constants describing your badge and it’s firmware
audio Easy to use wrapper around sndmixer for playing audio files
sndmixer Audio related functions in active development, may change at ANY time Partially
terminal Helper functions for presenting a user interface over the serial port or telnet
neopixel Control the addressable LEDs on your badge
mpu6050 MPU6050 accelerometer and gyroscope control
ugTTS A small library to generate and play back Text-to-Speech voice messages
espnow Mesh networking API utilizing the Espressif ESPNOW features of the ESP32
hid Send keyboard and mouse events over USB (only on supported boards)
midi Send MIDI messages over USB (only on supported boards)
keypad CampZone 2020 specific silicon keypad button event handler
touchpads Register callbacks that trigger when ESP32 touch pads are touched
samd Disobey 2019 specific hardware interface module
rgb Legacy display API for CampZone 2019 badges
keyboard Display a text entry form complete with on-screen-keyboard
umqtt MQTT client library
ssd1306 Direct SSD1306 display control (will be removed in a future release)
erc12864 Direct ERC12864 display control (will be removed in a future release)
eink Direct E-INK display control (will be removed in a future release)
rtc Legacy real-time-clock API (please use machine.RTC and utime instead) ✅  
_buttons Generic GPIO button handler API, usefull for adding extra buttons to GPIO headers ✅  
voltages API for reading various voltages, exact functionality differs per badge
esp32_ulp Collection of helper functions for using the Ultra Low Power co-processor

APIs that differ from their upstream counterparts

Other libraries and APIs

This section lists most of the other libraries that you can use in your apps.

Library Function Documentation
math Mathematical functions MicroPython
cmath Mathematical functions for complex numbers MicroPython
ubinascii Utilities for working with binary data (Hex-string, base64 and CRC32 calculation MicroPython
ucollections Collection and container types MicroPython
uerrno System error code reference MicroPython
uhashlib SHA1 and SHA256 hashing algorithms MicroPython
uheapq Heap queue algorithm MicroPython
uio Input/output streams MicroPython
ujson JSON encoding and decoding MicroPython
uos Basic “operating system” services MicroPython
ure Simple regular expressions MicroPython
uselect Wait for events on a set of streams MicroPython
usocket Sockets (TCP, UDP) MicroPython
ussl SSL/TLS module MicroPython
ustruct Pack and unpack primitive data types MicroPython
utime Time related functions MicroPython
uzlib Zlib decompression MicroPython
_thread Multithreading support MicroPython
gc Control the garbage collector MicroPython
sys System specific functions MicroPython
machine Functions related to the hardware (Note: different from upstream version) [BADGE.TEAM]](machine)
micropython Access and control MicroPython internals MicroPython
network Network configuration (Please use the wifi library instead when possible) MicroPython
esp ESP32 specific functions (Note: direct flash access has been disabled) MicroPython

Utilities

Library Function
pye Built-in text editor

2.2.3.1 - Display

The display module is available on platforms which have the framebuffer driver enabled. It allows for controlling the display of your device.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020    ✅ Disobey 2020    ✅ CampZone 2019    ✅ HackerHotel 2019
Disobey 2019    ✅ SHA2017

Reference

Command Parameters Description
flush [flags] Flush the contents of the framebuffer to the display. Optionally you may provide flags (see the table down below)
size [window] Get the size (width, height) of the framebuffer or a window as a tuple
width [window] Get the width of the framebuffer or a window as an integer
height [window] Get the height of the framebuffer or a window as an integer
orientation [window], [angle] Get or set the orientation of the framebuffer or a window
getPixel [window], x, y Get the color of a pixel in the framebuffer or a window
drawRaw [window], x, y, width, height, data Copy a raw bytes buffer directly to the framebuffer or the current frame of a window. The length of the bytes buffer must match the formula width*height*(bitsPerPixel//8). This is a direct copy: color format (bitsPerPixel) must match the specific display of the badge this command is used on.
drawPixel [window], x, y, color Draw a pixel in the framebuffer or a window
drawFill [window], color Fill the framebuffer or a window
drawLine [window], x0, y0, x1, y1, color Draw a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1)
drawTri(angle) [window], x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, color Draws a filled triangle
drawRect [window], x, y, width, height, filled, color Draw a rectangle at (x, y) with size (width, height). Set the filled parameter to False to draw only the border, or set it to True to draw a filled rectangle.
drawQuad* [window], x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, color Draws a four-pointed shape between (x0, y0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3), always filled
drawCircle [window], x0, y0, radius, a0, a1, fill, color Draw a circle with center point (x0, y0) with the provided radius from angle a0 to angle a1, optionally filled (boolean)
drawText [window], x, y, text, [color], [font], [x-scale], [y-scale] Draw text at (x, y) with a certain color and font. Can be scaled (drawn with rects instead of pixels) in both the x and y direction
drawPng [window], x, y, [data or filename] Draw a PNG image at (x, y) from either a bytes buffer or a file
getTextWidth text, [font] Get the width a string would take if drawn with a certain font
getTextHeight text, [font] Get the height a string would take if drawn with a certain font
pngInfo [data or filename] Get information about a PNG image
windowCreate name, width, height
windowRemove name
windowMove name, x, y
windowResize name, width, height
windowVisibility name, [visible]
windowShow name
windowHide name
windowFocus name
windowList -
translate* [window], x, y Move the canvas of the window by (x, y)
rotate* [window], angle Rotate the canvas of the window by an angle (in randians)
scale* [window], x, y Scale the canvas of the window by (x, y)
pushMatrix* [window] Save the current transformation for later, may be more than one
popMatrix* [window] Restore the transformation pushed earlier, may be more than one
clearMatrix* [window], [keep-stack] Clears the current matrix, and also the matrix stack unless keep-stack is true
getMatrix* [window] Returns an array representing the current matrix for the window
setMatrix* [window], [matrix] Sets the current matrix to the array representing it
matrixSize* [window] Returns the current size of the matrix stack for the window

* This command is only available if you run a firmware with graphics acceleration, and the respective part enabled in the component config under Driver: framebuffer. Currently, badges have these features disabled by default.

flag platform description
FLAG_FORCE All Force flushing the entire screen.
FLAG_FULL All Force flushing the entire screen.
FLAG_LUT_GREYSCALE All with greyscale: SHA2017 Simulate greyscale.
FLAG_LUT_NORMAL All with e-ink Normal speed flush.
FLAG_LUT_FAST All with e-ink Faster flush.
FLAG_LUT_FASTEST All with e-ink Much faster flush.

Color representation

Colors are always represented in 24-bit from within Python, in the 0xRRGGBB format. This matches HTML/CSS colors which are #RRGGBB as well.

Devices with a smaller colorspace will not actually store the exact color information provided. For displays with a color depth of less than 24-bit the display driver will automatically mix down the colors to the available color depth. This means that even if you have a black and white display 0x000000 is black and 0xFFFFFF is white.

Examples

Setting one pixel

import display
x = 2
y = 3
display.drawPixel(x, y, 0x00FF00)  # Set one pixel to 100% green
display.flush() # Write the contents of the buffer to the display

Drawing a line

import display
display.drawFill(0x000000) # Fill the screen with black
display.drawLine(10, 10, 20, 20, 0xFFFFFF) # Draw a white line from (10,10) to (20,20)
display.flush() # Write the contents of the buffer to the display

Drawing a line using pixels:

import display, time
display.drawFill(display.BLACK) # Fill the screen with black before drawing the line
displau.flush() # Write the color to the screen before drawing the line
for i in range(80): # Loop for the X axis
    display.drawPixel(i, 1, 0x00FF00) # Set 1 pixel on the X axis i, and the Y axis 1 to 100% green 
    display.flush() # Write the pixel output to the screen
    time.sleep(0.050) # Sleep for 50 milliseconds as to show the line being drawn

Drawing text

import display
display.drawFill(0x000000) # Fill the screen with black
display.drawText(10, 10, "Hello world!", 0xFFFFFF, "permanentmarker22") # Draw the text "Hello world!" at (10,10) in white with the PermanentMarker font with size 22
display.flush() # Write the contents of the buffer to the display

Drawing a rectangle

import display
display.drawFill(0x000000) # Fill the screen with black
display.drawRect(10, 10, 10, 10, False, 0xFFFFFF) # Draw the border of a 10x10 rectangle at (10,10) in white
display.drawRect(30, 30, 10, 10, True, 0xFFFFFF) # Draw a filled 10x10 rectangle at (30,30) in white
display.flush() # Write the contents of the buffer to the display

Spinning a box

Note: as described earlier, matrix transformations are not enabled in the firmware by default

import display, math
# Note: radians are an angle unit where PI (math.pi) is half a rotation
display.clearMatrix() # Clear the matrix stack, just in case it wasn't already
display.translate(display.width() / 2, display.height() / 2) # Go to the middle of the screen
    # Everything is now offset as if the middle of the screen is X/Y (0, 0)
while True:
    display.drawFill(0xffffff) # Fill the screen with white
    display.rotate(math.pi * 0.1) # This will continually rotate the screen by a small amount
    display.drawRect(-20, -20, 40, 40, True, 0x000000) # Simply draw a rectangle, which will then spin
    display.flush() # Flush, show everything

Spinning text

Note: as described earlier, matrix transformations are not enabled in the firmware by default

Similarly to spinning a box, you can also spin text this way.

import display, math
# Note: radians are an angle unit where PI (math.pi) is half a rotation
text = "Well hello there!" # Whatever you want to show
font = "7x5" # Pick a font
scale = 2 # You can scale text, too!
display.clearMatrix() # Clear the matrix stack, just in case it wasn't already
display.translate(display.width() / 2, display.height() / 2) # Go to the middle of the screen
    # Everything is now offset as if the middle of the screen is X/Y (0, 0)
while True:
    display.drawFill(0xffffff) # Fill the screen with white
    display.rotate(math.pi * 0.1) # This will continually rotate the screen by a small amount
    textWidth = display.getTextWidth(text, font) # Get the size so we can center the text
    textHeight = display.getTextHeight(text, font)
    display.pushMatrix() # Save the transformation for later
    display.scale(scale, scale) # Scale the text
    display.translate(-textWidth / 2, -textHeight / 2) # Move the canvas so the text is centered
        # It is important you scale first, then translate
    display.drawText(0, 0, text, 0x000000, font) # Spinny texts
    display.popMatrix() # Restore the transformation
    display.flush() # Flush, show everything

More complex graphics

Note: as described earlier, matrix transformations are not enabled in the firmware by default

Now you’ve spun a box and some text, what about something more complicated?
Let’s say we draw a boat on a wave!

First, we draw the boat using some shapes:

import display, math

def drawBoat():
    display.pushMatrix()
    drawBoatBottom(0x000000)
    display.translate(-4, 0) # Move just a little so the mast lines up nicely
    drawBoatMast(0x000000, 0x000000)
    display.popMatrix()

def drawBoatMast(mastColor, flagColor):
    # The points drawn, by place:
    # 0--1
    # |  |
    # |  6
    # |  |\
    # |  5-4
    # |  |
    # 3--2
    x0, y0 = 0, -23
    x1, y1 = 3, -23
    x2, y2 = 3, 0
    x3, y3 = 0, 0
    x4, y4 = 12, -10
    x5, y5 = 3, -10
    x6, y6 = 3, -20
    display.drawQuad(x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, mastColor) # This is the mast: points 0, 1, 2, 3
    display.drawTri(x4, y4, x5, y5, x6, y6, flagColor) # This is the flag: points 4, 5, 6

def drawBoatBottom(color):
    # The points drawn, by place:
    # 0--------1
    #  \      /
    #   3----2
    x0, y0 = -20, 0
    x1, y1 = 20, 0
    x2, y2 = 16, 8
    x3, y3 = -16, 8
    display.drawQuad(x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, color)

Now, to test your boat drawing action:

import display, math

# Put the boat drawing functions here

display.clearMatrix() # Don't forget
display.translate(30, 30) # Move to where you want to draw the boat
display.drawFill(0xffffff) # Clear the screen once more
drawBoat() # Draw the boat of course
display.flush() # Flush display; boat is now visible

Then, we’ll draw a wave and a sun:

import display, math

def drawSun(color): # Draws the sun with a circle and some lines
    display.pushMatrix()
    display.translate(-3, -3 - display.height()) # This is where the sun will orbit around
        # We do - display.height() here because we set the origin to be at the bottom of the screen earlier
    display.drawCircle(0, 0, 30, 0, 360, True, color) # The sun
    display.rotate(sunOffset)
    for i in range(20): # Draw lines as the sun's rays
        display.rotate(math.pi / 10)
        display.drawLine(0, 35, 0, 45, color)
    display.popMatrix()

# For good measure.
display.clearMatrix()

display.translate(0, display.height())

sunOffset = 0
offset = 0
boatX = display.width() / 6
boatAngle = 0
boatY = 0

while True:
    display.drawFill(0xffffff)
    drawSun(0x000000) # Draw the sun
    for i in range(display.width()): # Draw the waves by plotting points
        wave = math.sin((i + offset) * math.pi / 35) * 8 - 35
        display.drawPixel(i, wave, 0x000000)
        if i & 1:
            for j in range(round(wave - 1) | 1, 0, 2):
                display.drawPixel(i, j + ((i >> 1) & 1) + 1, 0x000000)
    offset += 8 # Move the waves over by a bit
    sunOffset += math.pi * 0.025 # Spin the sun by a bit
    display.flush()

Finally, you can draw the boat on the wave, by adding some code:

while True:
    display.drawFill(0xffffff)
    drawSun(0x000000)
    for i in range(display.width()):
        wave = math.sin((i + offset) * math.pi / 35) * 8 - 35
        display.drawPixel(i, wave, 0x000000)
        if i & 1:
            for j in range(round(wave - 1) | 1, 0, 2):
                display.drawPixel(i, j + ((i >> 1) & 1) + 1, 0x000000)
    # vvvv HERE vvvv
    display.pushMatrix() # Save the transformation, we're going to mess with it
    waterLevelBeforeBoat = math.sin((boatX + 2 + offset) * math.pi / 35) * 8 - 35
    boatY = math.sin((boatX + offset) * math.pi / 35) * 8 - 35
        # Calculate the two water levels, one at and one before the boat
        # By doing this, we know how and where to position the boat
    boatAngle = math.atan2(waterLevelBeforeBoat - boatY, 2) # Using atan2 to find the angle required to rock the boat with the wave
    display.translate(boatX, boatY - 6) # Now, position the boat
    display.rotate(boatAngle)
    drawBoat() # And draw the boat
    display.popMatrix() # Undo our changes to the transformation
    # ^^^^ HERE ^^^^
    offset += 8
    sunOffset += math.pi * 0.025
    display.flush()

The source code for the boat can be found here: gist: boat.py

Available fonts:

The fonts in the latest firmware can be obtained from the sourcecode.

Known problems

  • Rotation of the contents of windows does not work correctly in combination with rotation of the screen itself
  • There is no method available to list the fonts available on your platform
  • There is no method for providing a custom font
  • There is no anti-aliassing support

2.2.3.2 - Buttons

The buttons API allows you to read the state of the buttons on a badge. This API encapsulates the drivers for different button types.

Badge support

This API is currently supported on the following badges:

  • SHA2017
  • Hackerhotel 2019
  • Disobey 2019
  • CampZone 2019
  • Disobey 2020
  • Fri3dcamp 2018

Support for GPIO buttons and touch-buttons via the MPR121 touch controller IC are supported. Touch buttons using the touch button features of the ESP32 can not be used (yet).

Reference

Command Parameters Description
attach button, callback function Attach a callback to a button
detach button Detach a callback from a button
value button Get the current value of a button
getCallback button Get the current callback of a button
pushMapping [mapping] Switch to a new button mapping
popMapping none Switch back to the previous button mapping
rotate degrees Adapt the button layout to an orientation. Accepts 0, 90, 180 and 270 as values.

Button availability per badge

Name SHA2017 Hackerhotel 2019 Disobey 2019 CampZone 2019 Disobey 2020 Fri3dCamp 2018 OpenHardwareSummit 2018
A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
B Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SELECT Yes Yes No No Yes
START Yes Yes No No Yes
UP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
DOWN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
LEFT Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
RIGHT Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Default callback per button

Name SHA2017 Hackerhotel 2019 Disobey 2019 CampZone 2019 Disobey 2020 Fri3dCamp 2018 OpenHardwareSummit 2018
A
B Exit app Exit app
SELECT
START Exit app Exit app Exit app
UP
DOWN
LEFT
RIGHT

Callback implementation:

to use the buttons, you need to implement a callback function:


import buttons, display # Imports 2 libraries to use the buttons, the display library, as well as the buttons library
def on_action_btn(pressed): # Defines a function on_action_btn with the required parameter pressed
    if pressed: # Uses an if statement to check if the button has been pressed
        display.drawFill(display.BLACK) # If the button is pressed, sets the screen to black
        display.drawText(10,10,"Hack The Planet!!!", display.GREEN, "roboto_regular18") # Draws text if the button is pressed
        display.flush() # Flushes the screen to draw the text and color onto the screen
buttons.attach(buttons.BTN_A, on_action_btn) # Assigns the function on_action_btn to the A button

2.2.3.3 - System

The system API allows you to control basic features your app needs to provide a smooth experience to the user.

Reference

Command Parameters Description
reboot - Reboot the badge into the currently running app
sleep [duration], [status] Start sleeping forever or for the provided duration (in seconds). By defaut the function shows the fact that the badge is sleeping on the serial console, this can be disabled by setting the status argument to False.
start app, [status] Start an app. Optionally shows that an app is being started on the screen and in the serial console, for this to happen the status variable must be set to True.
home [status] Start the splash screen / default application. To show a message to the user set the optional status flag to True.
launcher [status] Start the application launcher. To show a message to the user set the optional status flag to True.
shell [status] Start a raw Python REPL prompt. To show a message to the user set the optional status flag to True.
ota [status] Initiate an Over-The-Air update session. Does NOT check if a newer firmware is available. To prevent hijacking other peoples badges it is NOT possible to provide a different update server or URL at this time.
serialWarning - Show a message telling the user that the currently running app can only be controlled over the USB-serial connection.
crashedWarning - Show a message telling the user that the currently running app has crashed.
isColdBoot - Returns True if the badge was started from RESET state. This function will only ever return true if the currently runing app was set as the default app.
isWakeup [timer], [button], [infrared], [ulp] Returns True if the badge was started from a WARM state. Normally this can be any warm state, however by setting the parameters specific wake reasons can be selected or ruled-out.
currentApp - Returns the name of the currently running app.

Examples

Starting an app

import system
system.start("2048") # Start the 2048 app (fails if this app has not been installed)

Going back to the launcher

import system
system.launcher()

Going back to the homescreen

import system
system.home()

Restarting the current app

import system
system.reboot()

Sleep for 60 seconds, then return to the current app

import system
system.sleep(60000)

Querying the name of the currently running app

import system
appName = system.currentApp()
if not appName:
	print("This code is running either in the shell or in the boot context")
else:
	print("Currently running app: "+appName)

2.2.3.4 - Appconfig

The appconfig API apps to register their user-configurable settings. By using this API, app settings are shown in the Settings page of the WebUSB website for supported badges.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import appconfig

settings = appconfig.get('my_app_slug_name', {'option_1': 'defaultvalue', 'awesomeness': 1337, 'option_3': [1,2,3]})
mynumber = settings['awesomeness']

Reference

Function Parameters Returns Description
get app_slug_name, default_options Object Gets the user-set options for the app with the given name. If no configuration exists yet, returns the object passed into default_options.

2.2.3.5 - Audio

The audio API allows you to easily play audio files or stream URLs (.mp3, .wav, and modtracker .mod, .s3m, .xm). It is a wrapper around sndmixer, which can do much more but is a bit more verbose.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import audio

channel_id = audio.play('/apps/myapp/doom.mp3', volume=150)

Reference

Function Parameters Returns Description
play filename_or_url, [volume], [loop], [sync_beat], [start_at_next], [on_finished] Channel ID (int) Play a file (e.g. ‘/apps/myapp/sound.mp3’) or stream from a url (e.g. ‘http://my.stream/song.mp3'). Filename or url needs to end with the filetype (.mp3, .wav, .mod, .s3m, .xm).

Use volume (0-255) to set the volume for this channel (defaults to system volume).

Use loop=True to repeat after playback is done.

Use sync_beat=(BPM of the music, e.g. 120) and start_at_next (1-32) to start playback at the next x-th 8th note (example: 1 starts at next 8th, 2 at next 4th (namely 2x an 8th), 4 at half note, 8 at whole note, 32 at whole bar).

If on_finished is a function, it is called when the playback ends.

Resources are automatically freed after playback finishes.
stop_looping channel_id - Cancel the looping status of a channel. This will end playback after the sound is finished with its current playback.
stop_channel channel_id - Cancel the playback of a channel immediately, and free its resources.

Known problems

  • Due to a bug in (presumably) our MicroPython version, stopping audio playback from a streaming URL causes a freeze in the MicroPython task. Therefore, you have to reboot your badge before you can play a different URL.
  • The current implementation can play around 4 wav files or 2 mp3 files at the same time without glitches or slowdowns. Any more can cause noticable artifacts.

2.2.3.6 - HID Keyboard & Mouse

The HID API allows you to make your CampZone 2020 badge act like a keyboard and mouse over USB. You can use it to type text, press key combinations, and click or move the mouse cursor.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import hid, keycodes

hid.keyboard_type("Cyber")

Reference

Function Parameters Returns Description
keyboard_type text - Automatically sends the right key press and release events for the keys needed to type a text. Will use the SHIFT modifier for uppercase keys too. Blocks until the whole text has been typed.
keyboard_press_keys keys, [modifier] - Send key down commands over USB for the given keys. The optional modifier can be used to convey pressing ctrl, alt, shift, or the GUI/Windows button.
keyboard_release_keys - - Cancels all current key presses by sending a release command.

You can learn more in-depth about how this module works by checking out its source here

A more complex example

import hid, keycodes, time

# Presses ctrl+alt+delete
keys = bytes([keycodes.DELETE])
modifier = bytes([keycodes.MOD_LEFT_CONTROL & keycodes.MOD_LEFT_ALT])
hid.keyboard_press_keys(keys, modifier)
time.sleep(0.1)
hid.keyboard_release()

Known problems

  • The USB mouse interface is not yet present in the firmware at time of writing. A future Over-the-Air update will include it.

2.2.3.7 - Keypad

The keypad API allows you to call functions when someone presses a button on the silicone keypad of their CampZone 2020 badge.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import keypad

def on_key(key_index, is_pressed):
    # Print to the serial port when a button is pressed or released
    print('Key ' + key_index + ': ' + is_pressed)

keypad.add_handler(on_key)

Reference

Command Parameters Returns Description
add_handler handler - Registers a handler function, that is called any time a keypad button is pressed or released. The first argument is the key index (0 top left, 3 top right, 12 bottom left, etc.), and the second argument is whether the button is currently pressed or not.
remove_handler handler - Removes previously registered handler function, so it won’t be called anymore.
get_state - touch_state Returns a list of 16 booleans indicating for each button whether they are currently pressed.

2.2.3.8 - MIDI Music Controller

The MIDI API allows you to make your CampZone 2020 badge act like a MIDI music controller over USB. You can use it to play music on your computer, or control music making programs like Ableton Live.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import midi, time

midi.note_on(midi.CENTRAL_C)
time.sleep(1)
midi.note_off(midi.CENTRAL_C)
midi.note_on(midi.CENTRAL_C+2) # D note (C plus two half tones)
time.sleep(1)
midi.note_off(midi.CENTRAL_C+2)

Reference

Function Parameters Returns Description
note_on note, [velocity], [midi_channel] - Sends a note start command with the given optional velocity (“volume”, 0-127, default 127). You can change the MIDI channel if wanted (0-15).
note_off note, [velocity], [midi_channel] - Sends a note stop command with the given optional velocity (“volume”, 0-127, default 127). You can change the MIDI channel if wanted (0-15).

The CampZone 2020 hardware supports not only MIDI OUT, but also IN. This means you can receive messages from e.g. your audio program. Ableton Live uses this to command the LEDs on MIDI controllers. However, there is currently no Python API for this yet. It may be included in a future Over-the-Air update.

2.2.3.9 - Touchpads

The touchpads API allows you to call functions when someone presses a touchpad.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import touchpads

def on_left(is_pressed):
    print('Left button: ' + is_pressed)

def on_ok(is_pressed):
    print('OK button: ' + is_pressed)

touchpads.on(touchpads.LEFT, on_left)
touchpads.on(touchpads.OK, on_ok)

Reference

Function Parameters Returns Description
on touchpad, callback - Set a callback that gets called whenever the given touchpad touch state changes. First argument to this function is the pressed state. Touchpad can be touchpads.LEFT, RIGHT, HOME, CANCEL, or OK.
off touchpad - Remove a previously set callback.

2.2.3.10 - ugTTS Text-to-Speech

The ugTTS API allows you to turn text into synthesized speech by querying Google Translate over WiFi. Either save it as an mp3 file, or play it directly. This module is based on the popular gTTS library.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020

Example

import wifi, ugTTS

wifi.connect()
if not wifi.wait():
    print('Oh no panic no WiFi')
    import system; system.launcher()

ugTTS.speak('This is a test')  # Plays over speakers
ugTTS.text_to_mp3('This is a test too', '/cache/test_speech.mp3')  # Saves to file for later playback

ugTTS.speak("Slaap kindje slaap", lang='nl') # Dutch
ugTTS.speak("Dommage", lang='fr', volume=100) # French and set volume

Reference

Function Parameters Returns Description
speak text, [lang], [volume] - Send piece of text to Google Translate and plays back the synthesized speech at given volume (0-255, default 255). You can optionally change the language, for values check gTTS library.
text_to_mp3 text, filename, [lang] - Same as speak() except it saves to the given filename.

Known problems

  • There is a finite length for the text before Google starts rejecting it.
  • We don’t expose the interface to set details like speech speed. Pull requests welcome.

2.2.3.11 - WiFi

The wifi API allows you to connect to WiFi networks easily.

Available on:    ✅ CampZone 2020    ✅ Disobey 2020    ✅ CampZone 2019    ✅ HackerHotel 2019
Disobey 2019    ✅ SHA2017

Example

import wifi
wifi.connect() # Connect to the WiFi network using the stored credentials
if not wifi.wait():
	print("Unable to connect to the WiFi network.")
else:
	print("You are now connected to WiFi!")

Reference

Function Parameters Description
connect [ssid], [password] Connect to a WiFi network. By default the stored credentials are used, but you can optionally provide the SSID (and password) of the network to connect to.
disconnect - Disconnect from the WiFi network.
status - Returns True if connected and False if not connected.
wait [timeout] Wait until a connection with the WiFi network has been made or until the timeout time is reached. Timeout is in seconds but may be provided in 10ths of seconds. If no timeout is provided the default timeout is used. Returns True if connected after waiting and False if a connection could not be made before the timeout.
ntp [only-if-needed], [server] Synchronize the Real-Time-Clock with the network. Normally the synchronisation is only started when the system clock has not yet been set since the last reset. This can be overruled by setting the only-if-needed parameter to False. By default the “‘pool.ntp.org” server pool is used.

Wait, is that all you can do with WiFi?!

No, of course not. The whole network API from the mainline MicroPython project is available on the badge.team firmware. Here are some examples for doing the stuff you’re probably looking for:

Connecting to a WiFi network, the hard way…

import network, machine, time

# First we fetch the stored WiFi credentials
ssid = machine.nvs_getstr("system", "wifi.ssid")
password = machine.nvs_getstr("system", "wifi.password")

# Create the station (WiFi client) interface
sta_if = network.WLAN(network.STA_IF)

# Activate the station interface
sta_if.active(True)

# Connect using the credentials
if ssid and password:
	sta_if.connect(ssid, password) # Secured WiFi network
elif ssid: # Password is None
	sta_if.connect(ssid) # Open WiFi network
else:
	print("ERROR: no SSID provided. Please configure WiFi (or manually set the variables at the top of this example)")

wait = 50 # 50x 100ms = 5 seconds
while not sta_if.isconnected() and wait > 0:
	wait -= 1
	time.sleep(0.1) # Wait 100ms

if sta_if.isconnected():
	print("Connected!")
	ip_addr, netmask, gateway, dns_server = sta_if.ifconfig()
	print("My IP address is '{}', with netmask '{}'.".format(ip_addr, netmask))
	print("The gateway is at '{}' and the DNS server is at '{}'.".format(gateway, dns_server))
else:
	print("Failed to connect to the WiFi network.")

Scanning for networks

import network
sta_if = network.WLAN(network.STA_IF)
sta_if.active(True)
data = sta_if.scan()
for item in data:
	print("SSID: {}, BSSID: {}. CHANNEL: {}, RSSI: {}, AUTHMODE: {} / {}, HIDDEN: {}".format(item[0], item[1], item[2], item[3], item[4], item[5], item[6]))

Creating an access-point

import network
ap_if = network.WLAN(network.AP_IF)
ap_if.config(essid="badgeNetwork", authmode=network.AUTH_WPA2_PSK, password="helloworld") # Create a network called "badgeNetwork" with password "helloworld"
ap_if.active(True)

Note: if you get “unknown error 0x000b” after running the config command then the password you chose is too short.

More information

We used the loboris micropython fork (<- link) as the core of our badge firmware. The network API comes directly from his project.

The API looks a lot like the official MicroPython network API (<- link).

2.2.3.12 - Terminal

The term API allows you to make more advanced use of the serial console.

Reference

Command Parameters Description
goto x, y Move the cursor to (x, y)
home - Move the cursor to (1, 1)
clear - Clear the terminal
color [foreground], [backgrund], [style] Set the color used for writing to the terminal
header [clear], [text] Prints a header on the top of the screen. Optionally clears the screen. You can include your own text to be added after the device name.
menu title, items, [selected], [text], [item-width] Shows a menu with a specified title and menu-items. The selected menu item can be set. If not set the first item will be selected by default. Optionally a text can be provided which gets printed at the top of the menu screen. If the maximum string length of one of the menu options exceeds 32 characters a different length may be provided to make the menu options match in length. The fuction returns the location of the selected menu-item. This function is blocking.
prompt prompt, x, y, [buffer] Prompt for text to be entered by the user. The prompt will appear at (x, y) and before the prompt the prompt text will appear. If a buffer is provided the text buffer will contain the provided value. This function is blocking.
setPowerManagement pointer to the power-management task By providing a pointer to the power-management task running in your app this function will reset the timer to 5 minutes each time the user changes his selection in the menu shown by the menu() function. This was mainly intended as an internal function and a more refined version will probably be defined somewhere in the future…

2.2.3.13 - Machine

The machine API makes it possible to access certain hardware interfaces directly, allowing for example direct control of GPIOs, busses (I2C) and other interfaces.

This API is variation on the standard MicroPython machine API which has been extended and modified.

Not all features described in the official MicroPython documentation are available on the BADGE.TEAM platform firmware. And additionally some functions will differ in syntax from the official MicroPython for ESP32 firmware.

Non Volitile Storage (NVS)

The NVS functions allow for storage and retrieval of small amounts of data to be stored. This API is used to access WiFi credentials and other system information and can be used to manipulate system settings as well as for storing settings specific to your app.

Direct GPIO control

The Pin API can be used to directly control GPIOs of your badge.

I2C bus

The machine API for I2C allows you to control the system I2C bus of your badge, the I2C bus exposed on the SAO, Grove, Qwiic or other extension ports as well as a second I2C bus on any two broken out GPIOs of your choice.

SPI bus

Direct control over the SPI bus is currently not supported on the BADGE.TEAM platform firmware. Sorry!

2.2.3.13.1 - Non Volatile Storage

This page describes the Non-Volatile-Storage (NVS) functions of the machine API. This NVS is used to store settings such as WiFi credentials and your nickname.

The NVS storage is a function of the ESP-IDF which allows for settings to be stored in a special partition on the flash of the ESP32 and is ment for small quantities of data. If you want to store large(er) amounts of data we suggest you use the filesystem functions of MicroPython to store your data on the FAT partition instead.

Reference

Command Parameters Description
nvs_set_u8 [space], [key], [value] Store an unsigned 8-bit value
nvs_get_u8 [space], [key] Retrieve an unsigned 8-bit value
nvs_set_u16 [space], [key[, [value] Store an unsigned 16-bit value
nvs_get_u16 [space], [key] Retreive an unsigned 16-bit value
nvs_setint [space], [key], [value] Store a signed integer value
nvs_getint [space], [key] Retreive a signed integer value
nvs_setstr [space], [key], [value] Store a string
nvs_getstr [space], [key] Retreive a string
nvs_erase [space], [key] Remove an entry from the NVS
nvs_erase_all [space] Remove all entries in a space from the NVS

NVS settings used by the firmware

The following list describes the settings stored by the BADGE.TEAM firmware.

Space Key Type Function
owner nick string The nickname of the owner of the badge
system default_app string The app/egg launched on powerup

NVS settings for your app

Please use the slug name of your app as the name of the space used to store your settings.

Examples

Nickname

Reading the nickname

import nvs
nickname = nvs.nvs_getstr("owner", "nickname")
print("Your nickname is '{}'!".format(nickname))

Setting the nickname

import nvs
nvs.nvs_setstr("owner", "nickname", "badge.team")

2.2.3.13.2 - The I2C bus

The machine API for I2C allows you to control the system I2C bus of your badge, the I2C bus exposed on the SAO, Grove, Qwiic or other extension ports as well as a second I2C bus on any two broken out GPIOs of your choice.

The ESP32 has two I2C controllers, each of which can be set to master or slave mode. Most of our badges use one of these I2C controllers for their internal I2C bus. You can take control over this system I2C bus using the machine API without directly causing issues but be adviced that doing this might possibly disrupt communications with one or more system components like the touch-button controller IC or the display.

Alternatively you can use the I2C API to define a secondary I2C bus on any two broken out GPIO pins.

Direct I2C access

The firmware contains a second API for working with the system I2C bus, allowing you to directly call some ESP-IDF I2C functions from within MicroPython.

(to-do)

Using the MicroPython machine.I2C API

While the directly exposed functions do already allow you to control i2c devices it is also possible to use the MicroPython I2C API on the same bus, simply by creating the bus using the exact settings used by the firmware itself.

The following snippet redefines i2c to be the MicroPython variant of the API instead of our direct functions. This snippet should work on all badges since it automatically uses the right pins for SDA and SCL as well as the correct bus speed for the board you are using.

import i2c, machine
i2c = machine.I2C(sda=machine.Pin(i2c.GPIO_SDA), scl=machine.Pin(i2c.GPIO_CLK), freq=i2c.SPEED)

If your board does not have a system I2C bus or if you want to use separate GPIOs for connecting your I2C device then you can also define a custom I2C interface on pins you choose. Keep in mind that the ESP32 can handle up to two I2C busses at once so if the firmare itself uses one then you can create only one custom i2c bus interface.

import machine
my_i2c_interface = machine.I2C(sda=machine.Pin(22), scl=machine.Pin(21), freq=100000)

2.2.3.13.3 - Pin: direct GPIO control

Direct GPIO control

The machine.Pin API allows you to directly control GPIOs of the ESP32 on your badge.

Please check the schematics of your badge before using this API. If you configure the GPIOs of the ESP32 in a wrong way your might cause your badge to crash, stop responding or even permanently damage it. Be carefull!

Basic digital input

from machine import Pin
myInput = Pin(0) # GPIO0 (exposed as the "flash" button on most badges)
value = myInput.value()
print("The value of GPIO0 is {}.".format(value))

Basic digital output

from machine import Pin
myOutput = Pin(<GPIO NUMBER>, Pin.OUT) # Check the schematic of your badge to find the numbers which can be entered here
myOutput.value(True) # Set the pin state to 1 or "HIGH"

Interrupts

(To-Do)

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

(To-Do)

Wakeup from deep-sleep

(To-Do)

2.2.3.14 - _buttons

2.2.3.15 - consts

2.2.3.16 - eink

2.2.3.17 - erc12864

2.2.3.18 - esp32_ulp

2.2.3.19 - espnow

2.2.3.20 - hub75

2.2.3.21 - keyboard

2.2.3.22 - mpu6050

2.2.3.23 - neopixel

IMPORTANT NOTE TO MCH2022 BADGE USERS!

The Neopixel library was reimplemented. Totally differently. Then we forgot to rename it. You can find some pointers on how to use it in the MCH2022 MicroPython docs

Sorry about that.

Import the library and start the driver

import neopixel
neopixel.enable()

Sending data to the LEDs

Once you have enabled the driver you can start sending data. The driver expects a bytes object containing a byte per channel. The exact meaning of these bytes depends on the type of addressable leds your device uses. The easiest way to generate the needed bytes object is by converting a list into one by wrapping it with bytes().

import neopixel
neopixel.enable()

ledData = [0xFF,0x00,0x00,0x00]
neopixel.send(bytes(ledData))

You can easily repeat patterns by using a simple Python trick: you can “multiply” a list by an amount to have python repeat the list that amount of times. The next example shows this, expecting 3 channels per led and 12 leds to be on the badge. If this is the case then all LEDs on the badge should light up in the same color.

import neopixel
neopixel.enable()

ledData = [0xFF,0x00,0x00] * 12
neopixel.send(bytes(ledData))

Turning all LEDs off

import neopixel
neopixel.enable()

number_of_channels = 3
number_of_leds = 12
ledData = [0x00] * number_of_channels * number_of_leds

neopixel.send(bytes(ledData))
neopixel.disable()

2.2.3.24 - opus

Encoding data

To encode data, you have to know the sampling rate and number of channels and create an Encoder:

import opus
sampling_rate = 8000
stereo = False
encoder = opus.Encoder(sampling_rate, stereo)

Then you can use the encoder to encode audio frames. Those may have lengths of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 60 milliseconds. Input data should be of type bytes or bytearray and contain 16-bit signed integers:

# One frame of data containing 480 null samples
input = bytearray(960)
# Encode the data, using at most 128 bytes for the frame. This would be around 2 kByte/s. At 8 kHz sampling rates, opus will use around 1 kByte/s for mono audio.
output = encoder.encode(input, 128)

Each encoded frame has some metadata at the beginning containing the channel, frequency, and the encoded size of the frame. This allows combining frames into one packet.

Decoding data

Decoders do not take any arguments with their constructor, because they take the necessary information from their input frames:

import opus
decoder = opus.Decoder()

The created decoder can handle any data created by opus.Encoder, even if the number of channels or the sampling rate differs - it will get reinitialized to match the new settings.

encoder = opus.Encoder(8000, 0)
decoder = opus.Decoder()

input = bytearray(960)
encoded = encoder.encode(input, 128)
decoded = decoder.decode(encoded)

2.2.3.25 - rgb

2.2.3.26 - samd

2.2.3.27 - sndmixer

(This page is still an ongoing effort and might contain mistakes.)

Starting the audio subsystem

The sound-mixer task runs on the second CPU core of the ESP32 and is able to mix together multiple auto streams and feed them to the DAC of your device.

The sound-mixer task needs to be started before any other audio related function can be used. Starting the sound-mxier task is done using the following API command:

import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(<number-of-channels>, <enable-stereo>)

Starting the sound-mixer with only one channel and with stereo enabled (sndmixer.begin(1, True)) results in the best audio quality but does not allow you to play multiple audiostreams at the same time. We recommend you start the sound-mixer task with an amount of channels you actually plan on using.

Note: it is currently not possible to stop the sound-mixer task, change the number of channels or stereo mode without restarting your badge. We’re working on adding this functionality in the future.

Playing MP3 music

MP3 files can be played by reading the MP3 compressed sample data from a bytearray buffer or by reading from a stream by means of the file-descriptor.

Playing an MP3 file directly from a bytearray has the added benefit that you can play the MP3 file multiple times at the same time. This allows you to create basic soundboard effects where the same sample can be triggered while it is already playing.

Playing an MP3 file from a stream (fd) allows for playing larger files without loading them fully into ram before playing, this is usefull for background music as longer MP3 files can be played easily. This method can also be used to play MP3 streams directly from the internet.

Playing an MP3 file using the bytearray method

# Preparation: start the sound-mixer task
import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(2, True)

# First we load the MP3 file into memory
with open("music.mp3", "rb") as fd:
  mp3data = fd.read()

# Then we play the mp3 file
audioStreamId = sndmixer.mp3(mp3data)

# Now that the stream is playing we can set the volume (0-255)
sndmixer.volume(audioStreamId, 50)

Playing an MP3 file using the stream method

# Preparation: start the sound-mixer task
import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(2, True)

# First we create a file-descriptor pointing to the MP3 file
mp3file = open("music.mp3", "rb")

# Then we play the mp3 file by passing the file-descriptor to the sound-mixer task
audioStreamId = sndmixer.mp3_stream(mp3file)

# Now that the stream is playing we can set the volume (0-255)
sndmixer.volume(audioStreamId, 50)

Playing opus-encoded data

Playback of opus works the same as MP3. You just have to replace mp3 with opus:

import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(2, True)
sndmixer.opus_stream(open('snd.opus', 'rb'))

Opus data is expected to have frames formed like this: u8: channels | u8: sampling_rate / 400 | u16: len | u8[len]: data, where data is the actual opus-encoded data. This is the format produced by the opus module.

Playing tracker music

The sound-mixer can play mod, s3m and other tracker music files (your mileage may vary).

# Preparation: start the sound-mixer task
import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(2, True)

# First we load the tracker music file into memory
with open("music.s3m", "rb") as fd:
  moddata = fd.read()

# Then we play the tracker music file
audioStreamId = sndmixer.mod(moddata)

# Now that the stream is playing we can set the volume (0-255)
sndmixer.volume(audioStreamId, 50)

Playing wave files

This is ment for playing short sound effects or samples. You could even generate the samples using python if you wanted to!

# Preparation: start the sound-mixer task
import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(2, True)

# First we load the wave file into memory
with open("music.wav", "rb") as fd:
  wavdata = fd.read()

# Then we play the wave file
audioStreamId = sndmixer.wav(wavdata)

# Now that the stream is playing we can set the volume (0-255)
sndmixer.volume(audioStreamId, 50)

Synthesizer

A (very) basic synthesizer is available as well. It currently generates sine, square and saw waves at a frequency and volume of your choosing. Each waveform generated uses one mixer channel.

# Preparation: start the sound-mixer task
import sndmixer
sndmixer.begin(3, True)

# Create the synthesizer channel
synthId = sndmixer.synth()

# Set the volume of the synthesizer channel
sndmixer.volume(synthId, 50)

# Set the frequency to 100Hz
sndmixer.freq(synthId, 100)

2.2.3.28 - ssd1306

2.2.3.29 - umqtt

2.2.3.30 - ussl

The ussl API provides low-level SSL encryption and certificate verification functions and is used by other APIs such as urequests.

Reference

Command Parameters Description
disable_warning Boolean: disable warning Disables the warning notifying users that the SSL connection isn’t secure because the server certificate isn’t verified
verify_letsencrypt Boolean: verify server certificate against Letsencrypt root Enables verification of the server certificate against the Letsencrypt root certificate
wrap_socket (See upstream Micropython documentation) (See upstream Micropython documentation)
debug_level 0-4 controls the amount of debug information printed

2.2.3.31 - voltages

2.2.4 - Jupyter Notebook

When coding the badge in (micro)python, it can be useful to use a Jupyter Notebook. This allows you to keep a ‘scratch pad’ of code snippets that you can easily and quickly adapt and run on the badge, without having to manually copy-paste code between your editor and the REPL all the time.

Normally a Jupyter Notebook would run the python code on your development machine. To make it run the code on your badge instead, you use the Jupyter MicroPython Kernel.

You can see a quick video of a notebook in action here.

Installation

This setup works best with Python 3. The easiest way to install is to create a virtualenv:

~$ mkdir badgehacking
~$ cd badgehacking
~/badgehacking$ python3 -m venv environment
~/badgehacking$ source environment/bin/activate

Install jupyter:

~/badgehacking$ pip install jupyter

Download and install the Jupyter MicroPython Kernel:

~/badgehacking$ git clone https://github.com/goatchurchprime/jupyter_micropython_kernel.git
~/badgehacking$ pip install -e jupyter_micropython_kernel
~/badgehacking$ python -m jupyter_micropython_kernel.install

If all went well, jupyter should now show micropython in the list of available kernels:

~/badgehacking$ jupyter kernelspec list
Available kernels:
  micropython    /home/aengelen/.local/share/jupyter/kernels/micropython
  python3        /home/aengelen/badgehacking/environment/share/jupyter/kernels/python3

Usage

To start the notebook, first enter the virtualenv again:

~$ cd badgehacking
~/badgehacking$ source environment/bin/activate

Start Jupyter:

~/badgehacking$ jupyter notebook

This should start the jupyter server on your machine, and open a browser window to interact with it. In that browser window, choose ‘New…’ and select ‘MicroPython - USB’. This will open a new MicroPython-enabled Notebook.

This will show a page with a ‘block’ that accepts python code. You can use Ctrl+Enter to execute the code in the block, and Alt+Enter to create a new block.

Before you can execute any commands, you will need to connect the notebook to your badge via the serial bus by adding the special command %serialconnect to a block and executing it. When you see Ready. the connection was succesful. On some badges you need to issue this command twice.

Limitations

Currently, a disadvantage of the Jupyter Notebook over using the REPL directly is that code completion (tab completion) is not yet supported in the Jupyter MicroPython Kernel. Jupyter does support completion with other kernels, so it is likely possible to add this feature in the future.

Links

The documentation for the Jupyter MicroPython Kernel is quite good.

2.3 - ESP32: firmware development



Getting started

New to development for the ESP32 platform firmware? This section will help you get up-and-running with firmware development.



Adding support for an ESP32 based device

Did you receive an ESP32 based badge at an event for which support is not yet available? Did you build your own ESP32 based device or badge? This section helps get you started with adding support for your badge.



Factory tests, provisioning and OTA updates

Interested in releasing a badge using our firmware? This section explains the factory testing and provisioning features, as well as how OTA updates and other release and support releated parts of our project work.

2.3.1 - Getting started

Welcome developer! This section describes how to get your development environment set-up so that you can build the BADGE.TEAM ESP32 platform firmware for any of the supported targets.

Introduction

Our firmware has been set-up as an ESP-IDF project. The ESP-IDF is the development framework or SDK released by Espressif. Espressif is improving and updating the ESP-IDF constantly. Unfortunately these updates often introduce breaking changes. Because of this we have included the exact version of the ESP-IDF that we use as a submodule in our firmware GIT repository.

Downloading the project

You can clone the project by running git clone https://github.com/badgeteam/ESP32-platform-firmware.git --recursive. Git will then create a folder called “ESP32-platform-firmware” containing the project files.

Installing required packages (Linux only)

Debian / Ubuntu: sudo apt-get install make unzip git libncurses5-dev flex bison gperf python-serial libffi-dev libsdl2-dev libmbedtls-dev perl

Installing the toolchain

Currently we’re using ESP-IDF version 3.2 to build the firmware. After cloning our repository you will find the exact version of the ESP-IDF used in the ESP32-platform-firmware/esp-idf folder. You don’t need to download or install a version of the ESP-IDF yourself.

The toolchain is another story: the newest ESP-IDF version (v4.x and newer) uses a different toolchain than the older (v3.3 / stable) version of the IDF. Because of this you can’t simply download the “latest greatest” ESP32 toolchain, instead you need to use a specific version.

You can download the correct version of the toolchain directly from Espressif using the following URLs:

Operating system Architecture Download link
Linux AMD64 (64-bit) https://dl.espressif.com/dl/xtensa-esp32-elf-linux64-1.22.0-80-g6c4433a-5.2.0.tar.gz
Linux I386 (32-bit) https://dl.espressif.com/dl/xtensa-esp32-elf-linux32-1.22.0-80-g6c4433a-5.2.0.tar.gz
Apple Mac OS OSX https://dl.espressif.com/dl/xtensa-esp32-elf-osx-1.22.0-80-g6c4433a-5.2.0.tar.gz
Microsoft Windows WIN32 https://dl.espressif.com/dl/esp32_win32_msys2_environment_and_gcc5_toolchain-20191220.zip

You can find the official toolchain installation instructions here:

The very, very short version of these instructions for Linux is as follows:

  • Extract the archive
  • Add the path to the bin folder in the archive, containing the toolchain executables, to your path export PATH="$PATH:/path/to/my/toolchain/xtensa-esp32-elf/bin"

Configuring the firmware

The firmware can be built for many different targets. Because of this the firmware has to be configured before it can be built. By default a “generic” configuration is used. Building the firmware using the generic configuration will get you to a Python shell on any ESP32 based device. However: almost all hardware support will be missing.

To apply the configuration for a specific badge navigate to the firmware/configs folder and overwrite (/create) the file firmware/sdkconfig with the configuration relevant to your badge.

(Note that running make clean to remove the build output is a bit broken / insufficient at the moment. Please remove the firmware/build folder manually after switching configurations to make sure the firmware is built correctly.)

Manually changing the configuration of the firmware is explained in the menuconfig section.

Building the firmware

After you’ve downloaded the firmware, applied the correct configuration and installed the correct toolchain you have to build the Micropython cross compiler. This extra compiler converts Python scripts into a Micropython specific binary format so that these Python scripts can be integrated inside the firmware image.

Building the Micropython cross compiler can be done by running bash mpy_cross.sh from inside the firmware folder.

After you’ve built the Micropython cross compiler you can build the firmware by navigating to the firmware folder and running make. On multi-core systems compilation speeds can be improved by adding the number of threads to be used: make -j 4.

2.3.1.1 - Menuconfig

You can start menuconfig either by running ./config.sh in the root of the repository or by executing make menuconfig in the firmware folder.

You will then be greeted by the main menu.

Main menu

The menu contains the following submenus:

  • SDK tool configuration
  • Bootloader config
  • Security features
  • Serial flasher config
  • Firmware & device configuration
  • Partition table
  • Compiler options
  • Component config

SDK tool configuration

In the SDK tool configuration menu you can configure the compiler toolchain path and prefix and the Python 2 interpretter to use. The default settings configured here use the toolchain found in your $PATH and the python2 executable found in your path as the Python interpretter. You should not have to change these settings.

Bootloader config

The bootloader config menu allows configuration of the bootloader. Changing these settings requires advanced knowledge of the ESP32 platform. The default values configured here should work.

Security features

The security features menu allows for configuring secure boot by encrypting the flash and signing the firmware. Use of these features on a badge would defeat the purpose of a hackable device and is thus not supported. Do not attempt to enable any of the options in this menu: you will brick your device!

Serial flasher config

This is the first interesting item in the list. In the serial flasher config menu you can configure the serial port to use when executing make flash, as well as the baudrate. This menu also allows you to tell the bootloader about the flash chip mode, speed an size. Most of the BADGE.TEAM badges have a 16MB flash chip, the CampZone2019 has a 8MB chip and most chinese boards have 4MB.

Firmware & device configuration

This menu allows you to configure the identity of your device.

Item Description
Code-name of the firmware Name of your device, lowercase and without spaces or special characters
Build number of the firmware Version information in the format “YYMMDDNN”: year, month, day and build
Name of the device Human readable name of the device
MicroPython modules directory subdirectory of /firmware/python_modules to use for the built-in MicroPython modules
Name of the badge on the app hatchery Name of your device or a compatible device supported by our Hatchery, lowercase and without spaces or special characters
Hostname of server for OTA updates Domain name of the server used for OTA updating (Example: “badge.team”)
Use HTTPS for OTA updates If enabled HTTPS can be used with a Letsencrypt SSL certificate. Other certificate authorities are not supported.
Port of server for OTA updates Port to use for OTA updates. Usually 443 for HTTPS or 80 for HTTP
Path on the server for OTA updates Path of the OTA firmware binary on the server, starting with a /
Path on the server for OTA update version Path to the JSON file with version information (used by the update check Python app shipped with some badges)
Hostname of server for app hatchery that contains user apps Domain name at which the Hatchery is hosted (used by the installer app shipped with some badges)
Default WiFi ssid The default WiFi SSID to use when the user has not yet configured WiFi
Default WiFi password The default WiFi password to use when the user has not yet configured WiFi (leave empty for ipen/insecure network)
Default display orientation For badges which use the same display as another type of badge but in a different orientation (explained below)

The HackerHotel 2019 badge is a direct derrivative of the SHA2017 badge, but with the display mounted in portrait mode instead of landscape. To allow for backwards compatibility with SHA2017 apps the real orientation has been set to landscape, while HackerHotel 2019 apps can call import orientation; orientation.default() to switch to the real orientation of the badge they are running on. The default orientation is configured here.

Partition table

In this menu a partition table can be selected. A set of partition tables has been provided in the /firmware/partitions folder. The partitions.ods spreadsheet can help you when designing a custom partition table. The partition table offset and the MD5 checksum options should be left at their default settings.

Compiler options

Advanced options for compiler optimization level and assertions. We suggest leaving the assertions enabled.

Component config

The component config submenu allows for configuring various components fo the firmware such as the MicroPython interpretter and the device drivers.

MicroPython configuration

To-do

Device driver configuration

The BADGE.TEAM firmware contains drivers for multiple devices such as displays and sensors. These drivers are written in C and part of the firmware itself, but they can be accessed from withing MicroPython using the bindings provided.

Is a menu empty? Does a feature not work?

  • To be able to use I2C based devices you have to enable the I2C bus driver first.
  • To be able to use SPI based devices you have to enable the VSPI driver first.
  • To be able to access displays using the “display” API from within MicroPython you have to enable the framebuffer driver.
  • The “double buffered” mode of the framebuffer driver is only relevant for devices which do not have their own buffer such as the Flipdot and HUB75 drivers. In all other cases it’s a waste of memory! Only enable this to use the display.flush() command with displays that stream directly from the framebuffer.

2.3.2 - Adding support

2.3.2.1 - Adding drivers

If you need low-level support for hardware that isn’t available yet, you can write your own drivers, and can expose them to the Python app layer.

  • Create the folder /firmware/components/driver_<category>_<name>.
  • In this folder, create files component.mk, Kconfig, and driver_<name>.c. Kconfig allows you to add configurable switches and variables from the ./config.sh step. The driver source file exposes an initialisation function that will be called upon boot. Have a look at e.g. /firmware/components/driver_bus_i2c to see how to populate these files.
  • In /main/platform.c:platform_init(), add INIT_DRIVER(<name>) to have your driver actually initialise during boot.
  • Add your driver’s header directory to firmware/micropython/component.mk, e.g. MP_EXTRA_INC += -I$(PROJECT_PATH)/components/driver_<category>_<name>/include.
  • Add python bindings to your driver by creating components/micropython/esp32/mod<name>.c (see e.g. modi2c.c).
  • Tell micropython about your bindings by adding the following to firmware/micropython/component.mk:
ifdef CONFIG_DRIVER_<NAME>_ENABLE
SRC_C += esp32/mod<name>.c
endif
  • Add the following to components/micropython/esp32/mpconfigport.h to add the module symbols to the python environment (replace i2c with your name):
#ifdef CONFIG_DRIVER_I2C_ENABLE
extern const struct _mp_obj_module_t i2c_module;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_DRIVER_I2C_ENABLE
#define BUILTIN_MODULE_I2C { MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR_i2c), (mp_obj_t)&i2c_module },
#else
#define BUILTIN_MODULE_I2C
#endif
(to the define called MICROPY_PORT_BUILTIN_MODULES, add the following line after the other drivers):
BUILTIN_MODULE_I2C \

2.3.3 - Factory tests and provisioning

(To-Do)

2.3.4 - Device status

Badge Current OTA firmware Platform support status
SHA2017 ESP32 platform Build 50 (“Rise of skywalker”) Fully supported
Disobey 2019 Legacy SHA2017 firmware Unknown, OTA server is currently offline. Everything works, needs testing Not officially released yet
HackerHotel 2019 Legacy SHA2017 firmware Everything works but audio needs improvement Not officially released yet
CampZone 2019 ESP32 platform Fully supported
Disobey 2020 ESP32 platform Fully supported, audio support still in progress
Fri3dCamp 2018 ESP32 platform Proof of concept
OHS2018 ESP32 platform Display works, proof of concept
Odroid Go ESP32 platform Proof of concept. Display and audio work. No support for buttons or SD.
TTGO LoRa ESP32 platform Proof of concept. Basics of the LoRa radio work, no interrupts, no WAN.